Outlines of Psychology

Book may have numerous typos, missing text, images, or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1885. Excerpt: ... of the mind of the race; and this vast process, again, it connects with a far vaster one, namely the gradual evolution of mind in the zoological scale. If abstract human psychology is the base, evolutional psychology may be called the apex of the science.1 APPENDIX B. THREEFOLD DIVISION OF MIND. The tripartite or threefold classification of mental phenomena adopted in this volume, though the common one in modern works on psychology, is not universally accepted. The ancient division as fixed by Aristotle was a bipartite or twofold one, intellect and will, or according to Aristotle, thought (vovs) and desire (Spelts). This remained the customary division in the middle ages. It survives in the classification of Reid, (1) Intellectual Powers and (2) Active Powers. Here feeling is subsumed under one or both of the other divisions. The present tripartite division was introduced by German psychologists (Tetens and Mendelssohn), and made prominent and authoritative by Kant . It rests on the essential and radical dissimilarity of the three orders of phenomena. Supposing it to be allowed that feeling, intellect, and volition are perfectly distinct groups of mental states, there remains the question whether they are equally fundamental, primordial, or independent . This question has been answered in different ways. Thus Leibniz, Wolff, Herbart and his followers, regard intellect or the power of presentation (WolfFs vis reprcesentiva) as the fundamental one out of which the others are derived.8 Hamilton, who strongly insists on the generic distinctness of the three classes, feeling, knowing, and willing, goes a certain way in the same direction when he says that "the faculty of knowledge is certainly the first in order, inasmuch as it is the conditio sine qua rum of the others." By this he mean...