After once trying to keep its population white and predominantly British, Australia reversed course. Since 1947 it has absorbed five million immigrants peacefully from some 240 countries around the globe, with increasing numbers from Asian nations. In making the change the country developed a national multicultural policy that encourages immigrants, and the indigenous people, to retain their traditional cultures while also becoming loyal Australians. This book about multiethnic Australia combines past and present to show why the change occurred, the conflicts it caused and the benefits it brought. It describes how a national tradition of services developed in the late nineteenth century helped immigrants who arrived after World War II. The last chapters view Australia in relation to world events: the economic rise of China, the impact of the Bali bombing in 2002 and the arrival of boat refugees from Middle Eastern nations seeking asylum. The book will help readers understand Australia today including current challenges and its potential to play a larger role in its Asia Pacific region.