An examination of preachings on the Sermon on the Mount exposes profound variations of theology. Luther relates the Sermon to the issues of the Reformation in Germany and the dawn of the Modern era, while Wesley contextualizes the Sermon with Rationalism, Empiricism, and the beginnings of English Industrialism. The book therefore studies the impact of historical contexts on the biblical interpretation. In addition to personal theology, theological paradigms account for the two different interpretations of the Sermon: Luther bases his interpretation on the forensic theology of the West, while Wesley depends more on the ideas promoted by the Greek fathers. A look at the Sermon also exposes the significance of the relationship between Luther's doctrines of righteousness by faith alone and the two kingdoms, as well as Wesley's interpretation of salvation as transformation.