Macro Roles for MicroRNAs in the Life and Death of Neurons

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ThediscoveryofmicroRNAshasrevealedanunexpectedandspectacularadditional levelof?netuningofthegenomeandhowgenesareusedagainandagainin differentcombinationstogeneratethecomplexitythatunderliesforinstancethe brain. SincetheinitialstudiesperformedinC. elegans,wegavegoneafarwayto begintounderstandhowmicroRNApathwayscanhaveanimpactonhealthand diseaseinhuman. AlthoughmicroRNAsareabundantlyexpressedinthebrain, relativelylittleisknownaboutthemultiplefunctionsoftheseRNAmoleculesinthe nervous system. Nevertheless,we knowalready that microRNA pathways play majorrolesintheproliferation,differentiation,functionandmaintenanceofneu- nalcells. SeveralintriguingstudieshavelinkedmicroRNAsasmajorregulatorsof theneuronalphenotype,andhaveimplicatedspeci?cmicroRNAsintheregulation ofsynapseformationandplasticity. DysfunctionofmicroRNApathwaysisalso slowlyemergingasapotentialimportantcontributortothepathogenesisofmajor neurodegenerativedisorderssuchasAlzheimer'sdiseaseandParkinson'sdisease. Thesenovelinsightsappeartobeparticularpromisingfortheunderstandingofthe veryfrequentandbadlyunderstoodsporadicformsofthesediseasesascomparedto thegeneticforms. Thus,thebetterunderstandingoftheimplicationsofthisnovel ?eldofmolecularbiologyiscrucialforthebroadareaofneurosciences,fromthe fundamentalaspectstotheclinic,andfromnoveldiagnostictopotentiallythe- peuticapplicationsforsevereneurologicalandmaybepsychiatricdiseases. The presentvolumegatherscontributionstotheColloqueMe'decineetRechercheonthe implicationsofmicroRNAsinneuroscienceorganizedbytheFondationIpsen,in Paris,onApril20,2009. Ithadasobjectivetobringtogetherneuroscientistsfrom differentareasofresearchtodiscusstheircurrentinsightsintothewonderfulworld ofmicroRNAs,andtohearanddiscusstheirresearchandviewsaboutmicroRNA biologyinneuronalprocessesandinbraindisorders. BartdeStrooper YvesChristen v Acknowledgments The editors wish to thank Jacqueline Mervaillie and Sonia Le Cornec for the organizationofthemeetingandMaryLynnGagefortheeditingofthebook. vii Contents Pro?lingthemicroRNAs ...1 KennethS. Kosik,ThalesPapagiannakopoulos,NaXu, KawtherAbu-Elneel,TsunglinLiu,andMinJeongKye TheWideVarietyofmiRNAExpressionPro?les intheDevelopingandMatureCNS ...9 MarikaKapsimali InteractionsbetweenmicroRNAsandTranscription FactorsintheDevelopmentandFunction oftheNervousSystem ...19 DavidJ. Simon AmicroRNAFeedbackCircuitinMidbrainDopamineNeurons ...27 AsaAbeliovich Fine-tuningmRNATranslationatSynapseswithmicroRNAs ...35 GerhardM. Schratt NeuronalP-bodiesandTransportofmicroRNA-Repressed mRNAs ...4 5 FlorenceRage CrosstalkbetweenmicroRNAandEpigeneticRegulation inStemCells ...57 KeithSzulwach,ShuangChang,andPengJin microRNAsinCNSDevelopmentandNeurodegeneration: InsightsfromDrosophilaGenetics ...69 StephenM. Cohen ix x Contents DrosophilaasaModelforNeurodegenerativeDisease: RolesofRNAPathwaysinPathogenesis ...79 NancyM. Bonini microRNAsinSporadicAlzheimer'ThediscoveryofmicroRNAshasrevealedanunexpectedandspectacularadditional levelof?netuningofthegenomeandhowgenesareusedagainandagainin differentcombinationstogeneratethecomplexitythatunderliesforinstancethe brain. SincetheinitialstudiesperformedinC. elegans,wegavegoneafarwayto begintounderstandhowmicroRNApathwayscanhaveanimpactonhealthand diseaseinhuman. AlthoughmicroRNAsareabundantlyexpressedinthebrain, relativelylittleisknownaboutthemultiplefunctionsoftheseRNAmoleculesinthe nervous system. Nevertheless,we knowalready that microRNA pathways play majorrolesintheproliferation,differentiation,functionandmaintenanceofneu- nalcells. SeveralintriguingstudieshavelinkedmicroRNAsasmajorregulatorsof theneuronalphenotype,andhaveimplicatedspeci?cmicroRNAsintheregulation ofsynapseformationandplasticity. DysfunctionofmicroRNApathwaysisalso slowlyemergingasapotentialimportantcontributortothepathogenesisofmajor neurodegenerativedisorderssuchasAlzheimer'sdiseaseandParkinson'sdisease. Thesenovelinsightsappeartobeparticularpromisingfortheunderstandingofthe veryfrequentandbadlyunderstoodsporadicformsofthesediseasesascomparedto thegeneticforms. Thus,thebetterunderstandingoftheimplicationsofthisnovel ?eldofmolecularbiologyiscrucialforthebroadareaofneurosciences,fromthe fundamentalaspectstotheclinic,andfromnoveldiagnostictopotentiallythe- peuticapplicationsforsevereneurologicalandmaybepsychiatricdiseases. The presentvolumegatherscontributionstotheColloqueMe'decineetRechercheonthe implicationsofmicroRNAsinneuroscienceorganizedbytheFondationIpsen,in Paris,onApril20,2009. Ithadasobjectivetobringtogetherneuroscientistsfrom differentareasofresearchtodiscusstheircurrentinsightsintothewonderfulworld ofmicroRNAs,andtohearanddiscusstheirresearchandviewsaboutmicroRNA biologyinneuronalprocessesandinbraindisorders. BartdeStrooper YvesChristen v Acknowledgments The editors wish to thank Jacqueline Mervaillie and Sonia Le Cornec for the organizationofthemeetingandMaryLynnGagefortheeditingofthebook. vii Contents Pro? lingthemicroRNAs ...1 KennethS. Kosik,ThalesPapagiannakopoulos,NaXu, KawtherAbu-Elneel,TsunglinLiu,andMinJeongKye TheWideVarietyofmiRNAExpressionPro?les intheDevelopingandMatureCNS ...9 MarikaKapsimali InteractionsbetweenmicroRNAsandTranscription FactorsintheDevelopmentandFunction oftheNervousSystem ...19 DavidJ. Simon AmicroRNAFeedbackCircuitinMidbrainDopamineNeurons ...27 AsaAbeliovich Fine-tuningmRNATranslationatSynapseswithmicroRNAs ...35 GerhardM. Schratt NeuronalP-bodiesandTransportofmicroRNA-Repressed mRNAs ...45 FlorenceRage CrosstalkbetweenmicroRNAandEpigeneticRegulation inStemCells ...57 KeithSzulwach,ShuangChang,andPengJin microRNAsinCNSDevelopmentandNeurodegeneration: InsightsfromDrosophilaGenetics ...69 StephenM. Cohen ix x Contents DrosophilaasaModelforNeurodegenerativeDisease: RolesofRNAPathwaysinPathogenesis ...79 NancyM. Bonini microRNAsinSporadicAlzheimer'sDiseaseandRelated Dementias ...91 Se'bastienS. He'bert,WimMandemakers,AikateriniS. Papadopoulou, andBartDeStrooper microRNADysregulationinPsychiatricDisorders ...99 BinXu,JosephA. Gogos,andMariaKarayiorgou Index ...1 19 Contributors Abeliovich Asa Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, Room15-405,NewYork,NY10032,USA,aa900@columbia. edu Abu-ElneelKawther NeuroscienceResearchInstitute,DepartmentofMolecular CellularandDevelopmentalBiology,UniversityofCaliforniaSantaBarbara,USA BoniniNancyM. UniversityofPennsylvania,306LeidyLaboratories,Depa- mentofBiology,Philadelphia,PA19104,USA,nbonini@sas. upenn. edu Chang Shuang Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine,Atlanta,GA30322,USA CohenStephenM. TemasekLifeSciencesLaboratoryLimited,1ResearchLink National University of Singapore, 117604 Singapore, SINGAPORE, steve@ tll. org. sg DeStrooperBart Centerforhumangenetics,K. U. LeuvenandDepartmentof molecularanddevelopmentalgenetics,VIBLeuven,BELGIUM GogosJosephA. DepartmentofPhysiology&CellularBiophysicsandDepa- mentofNeuroscience,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork,USA He'bert Se'bastien S. Centre de Recherche du CHUQ (CHUL), Axe Neur- ciences,Universite'Laval,De'partementdeBiologieme'dicale,2705Boul. Laurier, LocalRC-9800,Que'bec,Qc,Canada,sebastien. hebert@crchul. ulaval. ca JinPeng DepartmentofHumanGeneticsandGraduatePrograminGeneticsand MolecularBiology,EmoryUniversitySchoolofMedicine,Atlanta,GA30322, USA,pjin@genetics. emory. edu ' ' ' ' KapsimaliMarika INSERMU784,GenetiqueMoleculaireduDeveloppement, ' Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 PARIS Cedex 05 FRANCE, kapsimal@biologie. ens. fr xi xii Contributors Karayiorgou Maria Columbia University, Department of Psychiatry, 1051 RiversideDrive,Unit#28,NewYorkNY10032,USA,mk2758@columbia. edu Kosik Kenneth S. Neuroscience Research Institute, Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, BiologyII,Room6139A,SantaBarbara,CA93106,USA,kosik@lifesci. ucsb.