Public Sector organizations have experienced a rise in the use of business process improvement methodologies including Lean, Six Sigma, and their counterparts. The evidence of their implementation includes Health, Central Government, Local Government, Police and Fire Service organizations within the UK, Europe, Australia, and the US. The drivers for introducing business process improvement methodologies include government agendas, struggle with performance indicators, introduction of new leadership or technology, threat of competition, demand for increased efficiency and the need for service expansion with limited resources. The level of interest in Lean in Public Services is high as it is seen as a 'solution' to many of the performance, efficiency, and economic agendas currently prominent in the public sector. This book brings together a consolidated view supported through literature and empirical evidence on the why, what, how, and where of Lean in Public Services. It provides a history of Lean (and associated techniques within Public Services), presenting the tools used and outlining the success factors and barriers to implementing Lean in Public Services. As well as presenting a framework for researchers and policy makers to implement Lean improvement methodologies, the volume draws on a range of literature and raises questions on the applicability of a methodology originally developed for a private manufacturing context.