In 2001 the EMERGENCE team carried out 62 case studies in 18 European countries, of organisations which have relocated or outsourced work to remote sites using new technologies. Each case consists of a source in one region and a destination in another region or country. Eight distinct types of relocation are identified. Many factors are involved in the choice of location, and successful relocation depends on technological, organisational and social factors. Relocation places considerable demands on personnel at both source and destination organisations and may require a complete overhaul of business processes. Despite expectations about the death of distance2, successful relocation may demand considerable mobility of personnel. In some cases, the process of relocation leads to further organisational changes, which may in turn make further relocation easier. Once a caterpillar job has become a butterfly, it could fly anywhere.