Since the advent of keratorefractive surgery and its rising popularity, irregular astigmatism has become an increasingly important issue for ophthalmologists and optometrists. Despite the success of LASIK and PRK, there are more and more patients experiencing visual quality problems due to the non-physiological modification of the corneal structure. Among these complications, irregular astigmatism is perhaps the most difficult to treat.The first of its kind, Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment synthesizes our knowledge and understanding of irregular astigmatism and addresses state-of-the-art technology in management and treatment. Dr. Ming Wang, assisted by Dr. Tracy Swartz, has led a team of internationally known experts in the field to produce this innovative, comprehensive, and logically presented text, which includes more than 300 illustrations to supplement the information provided.This book contains: history and optics of regular and irregular astigmatisms; useful criteria for diagnosis and classification; current state-of-the-art technologies for treatment; suggestions for future direction in treatment technology. Every physician who performs keratorefractive surgery understands that in reducing a patient's refractive error, there is a possibility of creating irreversible effects on visual quality. Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment is intended to help prevent and reduce the iatrogenic creation of irregular astigmatism, as well as provide effective treatment when postoperative complications do arise.Treatment technologies addressed herein are: discussion of complications including: decentered treatment; small optical zone; central island; oblate cornea; destablized cornea; UV corneal cross-linking; intacs intracorneal rings; penetrating and lamellar keratoplasties; C-CAP; custom wavefront- and topography-driven treatments; lens surgery and toric IOL; and conductive keratoplasty.In addition, this text systematically separates two distinctly different etiological groups of irregular astigmatism - that of a structurally stable cornea and that of a structurally unstable weak cornea - and comprehensively presents all treatment modalities for each.With the maturation of keratorefractive technology in recent years, effective treatment for iatrogenic irregular astigmatism is quickly developing. Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment provides everything refractive surgeons, ophthalmologists, and optometrists need to know about this important topic.