The ninth edition of Introduction to Criminology provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of lawmaking, lawbreaking, and reactions to crime. Both classic and contemporary theories of the causes of crime are discussed and critiqued. Special attention is given to critical theories of crime and to general theories. The latest crime statistics, research, and theorizing are fully integrated throughout the text and the innovative epilogue provides students with the tools to actually apply criminological theory to real life events. New to this edition: -Thoroughly updated throughout including statistics, studies, and theories in criminology. -The discussions of drugs, prostitution, and organized crime are now together in one chapter (chapter 7). -New chapters have been added on critical theories (chapter 14) and biological, psychological, and evolutionary explanations of crime (chapter 11). -More illustrations and examples of crime from popular culture have been added throughout the text in an effort to help students make stronger intellectual connections to the material. -A new epilogue has been added that will help students think through common criminological issues and questions they are likely to encounter in everyday conversation.