Interpretations of Probability

Like geometry, probability can not be reduced to just one model to describe all physical and biological phenomena. Each model has a restricted range of applications. Quantum physics demonstrated that the use of conventional probability models induces some paradoxes. Such paradoxes can be resolved by using non-Kolmogorov probability models, developed on the basis of purely classical interpretations of probability: frequency and ensemble. Frequency models describe violations of the law of large numbers. Ensemble models are models with infinitely small probabilities. This is the first fundamental book devoted to non-Kolomogorov probability models. It provides the first mathematical theory of negative probabilities - with numerous applications to quantum physics, information theory, complexity, biology and psychology. Natural models with negative (frequency and ensemble) probabilities are developed in the framework of so-called p -adic analysis. The book also contains an extremely interesting model of cognitive information reality with flows of information probabilities, describing the process of thinking, social and psychological phenomena. This book should be of interest to specialists in probability theory, statistics, functional analysis, quantum physics and (partly) specialists in cognitive sciences and psychology.