This book situates violent conflict in the Niger Delta in the context of the failure of the government to effectively implement relevant oil-related environmental policies intended to achieve sustainable development, arguing that oil and environment-related conflicts in the region are reflections of this failure. This failure is premised on the notion that the goal of sustainable development, as clearly outlined in Nigeria's National Environmental Policy, can be pursued through the activities of government, individuals and business organisations that are capable of engendering economic and social progress for communities that depend on the environment for their survival. In fact, available evidence shows that government and oil company activities actually contribute to the despoliation of the environment in the Niger Delta. Despite existing environmental legislations and guidelines, unsafe waste disposal, flaring of gas and oil spillage remain key features of oil industry operations in the Niger Delta. This book highlights the unsurprising lack of synergy between government and oil company activities, and the attainment of sustainable development as a key goal of the environmental policy of the government. In other words, the activities of the government and oil companies do not sufficiently promote sustainable development. The net consequence is reflected in the frustrations of local justice and environmental movement groups about the political processes which deter (rather than enable) their agitation for improvements in local living conditions and development in the Niger Delta.