This book was originally written as a historical treatise to demonstrate -that the development of economic ties between Russia and China is the logical outcome of a centuries old friendship between these neighboring peoples, a friendship which accords with their fundamental interests and is of general benefit to all mankind.- In the post-Soviet and post-Maoist era, these consensual tendencies are even stronger. The original publication of this translation in 1966, when its central thesis had long been abandoned and refuted by both sides, is still of value and not just as an ironic comment on the theorists and systemizers of history. For this, better examples are already available in every book shop and on the shelves of every library. Rather, the work demonstrates that sharing a common socialist ideology is insufficient to overcome animosities of history and national rivalries. The student of Sino-Soviet relations will find much of interest here. The book still represents a work of considerable scholarship, even though its ostensible raison d'I1/2tre has been abolished. Armed with the knowledge that the protagonists have accepted some of the author's reservations and have reversed their positions on a number of points objectionable to him, the reader will be able to achieve a clear and comprehensive understanding of the subject. Partisanship was never particularly subtle in debates within Marxist or Maoist circles. The virulence of the language in some sections of the book, which have been rendered accurately, with no toning down, provides the reader with an insight into the background of China's continuing intransigence in international policies.