This book provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using a general matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to familiarize the reader with practical applications. Diffuse and inelastic scattering and coherence effects are treated comprehensively both as a perturbation of elastic scattering and within the general multiple scattering quantum mechanical framework of the density matrix method. Among the highlights are the treatment of resonance diffraction of electrons, HOLZ diffraction, the formation of Kikuchi bands and lines and ring patterns, and application of diffraction to monitoring of growing surfaces. Useful practical data are summarised in tables including those of electron scattering factors for all the neutral atoms and many ions, and the temperature dependent Debye-Waller factors given for over 100 elemental crystals and compounds.