This highly unique book takes a fundamental look at when and how a government can fail at its core responsibility of formulating rules. Government, representing society, relates to the economy by formulating the rules within which (market) players should operate. Although market and business failure are much discussed in the economics literature, government failure is often overlooked. This book addresses this gap, exploring in detail what constitutes government failure. Wilfred Dolfsma illustrates that it is not adequate to discuss government failure simply with reference to its level of expenditure, as is usually the case. Defining government failure and analysing it in the domains of health care, innovation and technology, he explores topics such as how market and society relate, consequences of conflicts between government policies, how government should (not) intervene, the vulnerability of institutions and rules (set out by government), and suggests a welfare perspective for evaluative purposes. This stimulating and thought provoking book will prove a fascinating read for academics, researchers and advanced students in economics - particularly public choice and institutional economics - public administration, policy studies, and law and economics.