The first grammatical descriptions of the French language were produced in England, several centuries before the first grammar written in French (but also several centuries after the Norman Conquest). This book describes the status of French in England during the period from the marriage of Emma of Normandy to thelred (1004) to the fixing of a (relatively) standard pedagogical scheme for the teaching of French of English speakers (ca. 1600). During this period French passed from a native language to a second language, became the official language of the legal profession, and ultimately fell back to a position of social accomplishment. At the same time, different pedagogical and descriptive traditions developed to meet these various needs. Here Kibbee traces the interaction of cultural, intellectual, social and technological history with the elaboration of a grammatical tradition. The book includes a bibliography and indexes of names, titles and subjects.