This text offers readers an insight into one of the most fascinating examples of federalization in Europe. Although there is a political sensitivity to calling Spain a Federation the country has since 1978 gone through a simultaneous process of democratization and federalization. Its parallels with South Africa are intriguing. After the Franco dictatorship the country embarked on decentralization to empower the regions and to bring decision making closer to people. Of particular interest is the asymmetry in the power of the regions. It is trusted that this contribution by Luis Moreno - an eminent political science scholar in Spain - will provide South Africans in particular with fresh perspectives on the process of federalization and the difficulties that may be experienced.