EWork in Europe: The EMERGENCE 18-Country Employer Survey. IES Report 380

The EMERGENCE project was conducted to map and measure eWork (the processing of information and transmission of it by means of telecommunications located anywhere in the world) in 18 European countries (15 European Union states plus Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic). Data for the project were gathered through a survey of 7,268 employers of at least 50 employees through computer-aided telephone interviews. The study found that eWork is taking place on a significant scale in Europe. The dominant forms of eWork are the use of remote offices, many of them call centers, and employment of multilocational workers. Fully home-based eWork by employees remains a minority practice. Such internal forms of eWorking by employees, however, are outweighed by external forms using outsourcers. The strongest driver of eWork is the search for technical expertise, along with cost and quality considerations. Tax breaks, government grants, or subsidies to locate in certain regions appear to play a minimal role in choice of location. The results suggest a need for further research on the impact of eWork and raise a number of questions for policymakers, including issues of employment regulations, employment mobility, continuing education, and the relationship of the "new" economy to the "old" economy. Three appendixes include a chart of the structure of the EMERGENCE questionnaire; a glossary of 10 terms used in the survey; and a list of the most popular destinations for eWork for European customers. (KC)