The science of environmental toxicology is one of the most interdisciplinary ones. Biologists, microbiologists, chemists, engineers, environmentalists, ecologists, and other scientists have worked hand in hand developing this new discipline. The issue of the assessment of environmental effects of chemicals is complicated; it depends on the organism tested and involves not only toxicity testing of single chemicals, but also interactive effects (including synergistic ones) and genotoxicity, mutagenicity and immunotoxicity testing.The issue of hazardous waste management is also closely related to environmental toxicology, and there is a growing need for techniques and practices to minimize the environmental effects of chemicals and for the implementation of the corresponding principles in the planning of environmental policy and decision-making. With many new chemicals entering the market every year, it has become necessary to assess their effects on the ecosystem, and to find ways to minimize their impact on the environment.The Second International Conference on Environmental Toxicology brought together a wide range of people working within the many disciplines associated with environmental toxicology and hazards waste management, including: biologists; environmental engineers; chemists; environmental scientists; microbiologists; medical doctors; and all academics, professionals, policy makers and practitioners. This book contains the papers presented at the Conference and covers subject areas such as: Risk assessment; Effluent toxicity; Pharmaceuticals in the environment; Genotoxicity; Bioaccumulation of chemicals; Monitoring, assessment and remediation of hazardous waste; New trends in environmental toxicology; Bio tests; Biodegradation and bioremediation; Ecotoxicity of emerging chemicals; Soil ecotoxicity; Protyomics and gemomics; Biological effects monitoring; Endocrine distribution in wildlife; Laboratory techniques and field validation; Online toxicity monitoring; Ecosystem and human health assessment; Exposure pathways; Integrated approach to risk assessment; Bio-terrorism safety and security; Habitat destruction.