E-Research Collaboration: Theory, Techniques and Challenges

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Researchinbothacademicandnon-academiccircleshasremainedvirtuallyiden- calinitsconductandorganizationoverthelastfewdecades. Disparategroupsof researchershaveworkedontheirideas,projectsandinventionsinisolatedclusters, withlittlesharingofinformationandsynergiesfromcollaboration. Theadventof social networks and Web technologies has led to the creation of new research networksthathavedramaticallyreducedthebarriersandobstaclestocollaboration forresearcherswhoaregeographicallyandorganizationallydistant. Webtechnologiesusebroadbandconnections,improvedbrowsers,and rich multimediainconcertwithanewgenerationofwebsitesthatencouragedusersto contribute to content. Blogs, forums, wikis, and other forms of user-generated contentare,inmanycases,themajorsourceofcontentforthesewebsites. Theevolutionofsocialnetworksbeganwiththetrulysocialnetworksoffriends pavingthewayforbusinessnetworks,whichinturnledtothecurrentresearch networksthatconnectacademicandnon-academicresearchersacrosstheworld. Beingmuchmorerobustthantheoriginalsocialnetworksandthebusinessn- worksthatfollowed,collaborativeresearchnetworkshavethepotentialtoeven- ate in technological advances, innovation, and economic contributions to both industryandnations. Currently,tensofthousandsofresearchersareusingresearchnetworks,ushering in a new paradigm for research. In this paradigm, collaboration is made much easier,andsharingofresearchknowledgeisinstant. Synergiesfromroutinecoll- oration will yield huge advances in research productivity and innovation. The challengeforadministratorsinbothindustryandacademiaistounderstandhow researchnetworksarechangingthepracticeofresearchandtodecidehowbestto embracesuchtechnologiesandusethemtotheirbestadvantage. v . Contents PartI e-ResearchCollaboration:Theory AnOverviewofe-ResearchCollaboration ...3 1 Introduction...3 2 SocialNetworksandResearchCollaboration ...6 3 WebTechnologies,SocialNetworksande-ResearchCollaboration...6 4 AnOverviewofThisBook...7 5 PartOne:e-ResearchCollaboration:Theory...8 6 PartTwo:e-ResearchCollaboration:Technologies...9 7 PartThree:e-ResearchCollaboration:Challenges...10 8 Conclusions...12 References...1 2 AnAnatomyofCollaborationWithintheOnlineEnvironment ...15 1 IntroductiontoCollaborationTheory...15 2 De?ningCollaboration...16 2. 1 Cooperation...16 2. 2 Coordination...17 2. 3 Collaboration...18 3 EssentialElementsofCollaboration...19 3. 1 Communication...19 3. 2 TrustandRespect ...20 3. 3 EqualityandPower...21 3. 4 StrategicAlliances...22 3. 5 IncentiveandValue...23 3. 6 Negotiation...23 3. 7 Inter-organisationalKnowledgeSharing...24 vii viii Contents 4 ComparisonofCooperation,CoordinationandCollaboration...25 5 PracticalImplicationsforCollaborationTheory...30 References...32 Time,PlaceandCyberspace:FoundationsforSuccessful e-ResearchCollaboration ...35 1 Introduction...35 2 Context:RoleofCommunicationinCollaborations ...36 3 Methodology:CaseStudyofDigitalHumanitiesCommunity...39 4 Findings:e-ResearchCommunicationTools,UsesandDrawbacks...40 5 ImplicationsofResearchResults:FindingtheBalance Betweene-ResearchToolsandIn-personCommunications...43 6 ConclusionsandRecommendationsforGlobalResearchTeams...46 References...47 GapsandBridgesinInterdisciplinaryKnowledgeIntegration ...49 1 Introduction...49 2 KnowledgeIntegrationWithinandBeyondEpistemicCultures...5 1 3 ThePuzzleofInterdisciplinaryKnowledgeIntegration...51 4 ResearchApproach...54 5 COMDEV ...54 6 CollaborationGapsandBridges...55 6. 1 CollaborationBridges...56 7 EntrepreneurialGaps ...57 8 EntrepreneurialBridges...59 9 Conclusion...60 References...63 BuildingaConceptualFrameworkforCreatingNewKnowledge ThroughaVirtualInterdisciplinaryEnvironmentProcess ...