Distillation Engineering

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Partial Table of Contents I. The Thermal Separation of Liquids II. Thermodynamics of Mixtures 1. Definitions and Relationships A. Separability of a Liquid Mixture B. Partial Pressures in Vapor Mixtures C. Evaporation of Liquid Mixtures 2. Types of Mixtures A. Ideal Binary Mixtures B. Nonideal Binary Mixtures C. Ideal Multicomponent Mixtures D. Nonideal Multicomponent Mixtures III. Continuous Rectifiers 1. Mode of Operations 2. Operating Lines A. Enrichment Line B. The Stripping Line 3. Stepwise Separation in Rectifiers A. Theoretical Plates for Separation of Binaries B. The Reflux Ratio in the Separation of Binaries C. Multicomponent Mixtures 4. Column Diameter and Column Throughput 5. Heat Requirements IV. The Batch Still 1. Operation 2. Operating Line and Separation Steps 3. Column Diameter, Column Throughput, and Heat Requirements 4. Time for Separation and Related Variables at Constant Product Concentration A. Molar Vapor Load Constant in Time B. Heat Requirement Constant in Time 5. Separation Time for Variable Heating Area V. The Semicontinuous Still 1. Operation 2. Finding the Operating Lines, the Separation Steps, the Column Load, the Column: Size, and the Heat Demand VI. Engineering Data, Optimization of Costs, and Selection of Column Internals 1. General A. Packing Types B. Plates and Trays 2. Designs and Functions A. Packed Towers B. Plate Columns 3. Evaluation of Rectifying Columns and Best Mode of Operation A. Evaluating and Calculations, Separating Effect, Pressure Loss, Load, Specific Column Volume, and Specific Column Cost B. Numerical Evaluation for Packed Towers C. Quantitative Evaluation for Plate-Type Columns D. Packed Columns versus Tray Columns-Operational Features and Cost E. Special Designs for Vacuum Operation 4. Tests of Full-Size Tower Internals VII. Optimum Separation 1. Optimization of Simple Columns A. The Theory and Its Application B. Quantitative Evaluation 2. Optimization of Multiple Columns A. Duplex Columns: Number of Theoretical Steps, Reflux Ratios, and Vapor Loads B. Vapor Loads of Multiple Columns Subdivided Because of Limited Height C. Optimizing Duplex Rectifiers for Minimum Pressure Loss 3. Optimum Operation of Combined Columns of Different Types Under Special Consideration A. Parallel Arrangement B. Series Arrangement 4. Specialized Operations A. Specialized Hookups and their Calculation B. Rectification in Straight Stripping Columns C. Rectification in Straight Enriching Columns D. Direct Heating of Columns E. Saving Heat in Rectification VIII. Detail Planning of Separating Columns 1. General Viewpoints in the Selection of Column Types 2. Packed Columns F. Maximum Loads for Metallic; Pall-Ring and Raschig Ring Columns 3. Special Packings 4. Plate-Type Columns 5. Pressure Losses in Rectification Columns IX. Partial Distillation 1. Separation of Liquids by Continuous Partial Distillation 2. Separation of Liquids by Discontinuous Partial Distillation X. Partial Condensation 1. Partial Condensation in Dephlegmators 2. Partial Countercurrent Direct Condensation in Columns XI. Laboratory Columns and Pilot Plants 1. Distillation Columns with Miniature Size Packing 2. Transferring Data Gained From Semi-industrial Units to Full-Scale XII. Distillation in Fine and High Vacuum 1. Molecular Distillation 2. Thin-Film Distillation 3. Mechanism of Separation XIII. Components of a Separation Plant J. Internal Components 2. Heat Exchangers 3. Pumps 4. Measuring and Controls XIV. Use of Computers XV. Distillation and Environmental Protection XVI. Outlook Bibliography Symbols and Units Glossary Index