This book incorporates fast-moving research themes based on agricultural crop improvement and ongoing climate change in the present scenario. Natural and cultivated habitats of crop plant are continuously disturbed; as a result, crop productivity and crop biology are affected by climate change patterns like environmental hazards, abiotic stresses (water scarcity, salinity, heavy metals, oxidants, etc.), global warming, and others. This book is aimed at overall crop improvement, beyond such barriers, by agricultural processes, soil reclamation, fertilizer and biofertilizer applications, organic farming, hybridization and breeding programme, biotechnological approaches including genetic engineering, transgenesis and tissue culture, different 'omic' technologies. Thus, it covers a wide range of topics under environmental challenges, agronomy and agriculture processes, and biotechnological approaches. Chapters in this book are contributed by expert scientists, researchers, and academics from around the world who have worked on the challenging problem of achieving crop improvement in this variable environment. Every chapter deals with the theoretical as well as applied aspects of the topic. This book will be especially useful to scientists and researchers, graduate and postgraduate students engaged in crop production, crop improvement, plant breeding, agronomy, agricultural processes and biotechnology.