The present study introduces the activities of the confraternity in honor of the Father-Founder of the Scuole Pie and the Blessed Virgin, Fr. Costantino Paoli, and the 100 years of musical performances that it sponsored. These occasions were staples of the city's musical, religious, and social life throughout the nineteenth century. This book explores the musical history of the Florentine Scolopians, performance practices, and the repertoire, composers, and librettists involved. An annotated catalogue of the music holdings of the Biblioteca Scolopica Provinciale Firenze at San Giovanni Evangelista is also provided.