X-ray computed tomography (CT) continues to experience rapid growth, both in basic technology and new clinical applications. Seven years after its first edition, Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advancements, Second Edition , provides an overview of the evolution of CT, the mathematical and physical aspects of the technology, and the fundamentals of image reconstruction algorithms. Image display is examined from traditional methods used through the most recent advancements. Key performance indices, theories behind the measurement methodologies, and different measurement phantoms in image quality are discussed. The CT scanner is broken down into components to provide the reader with an understanding of their function, their latest advances, and their impact on the CT system. General descriptions and different categories of artifacts, their causes, and their corrections are considered at length. Given the high visibility and public awareness of the impact of x-ray radiation, the second edition features a new chapter on x-ray dose and presents different dose reduction techniques ranging from patient handling, optimal data acquisition, image reconstruction, and post-process. Based on the advancements over the past five years, the second edition added new sections on cone beam reconstruction algorithms, nonconventional helical acquisition and reconstruction, new reconstruction approaches, and dual-energy CT. Finally, new to this edition is a set of problems for each chapter, providing opportunities to enhance reader comprehension and practice the application of covered material.