This book builds on the premise that the effectiveness of national efforts to increase spending on R&D can be approximated by the competitiveness of that economy in international markets. Building on a number of existing `benchmarking' studies that have to date only ranked countries according either to their R&D indicators, or their performances in innovation, this is the first book to offer a synthesized assessment of the R&D competitiveness of national economies based on both input and output related indicators. Several quantitative methods are used to combine these lists with a wide variety of R&D indicators. The book confirms one of the major premises of the Lisbon Strategy - that Europe is significantly lagging behind its overseas competitors in R&D. Competitiveness in Research and Development includes a unique comparative analysis of R&D and innovation systems of transition and developing economies. It also features a comprehensive and critical survey of international literature on the measurement of R&D and innovation performance. Academics and researchers of innovation and science and industrial economics will find much to interest them in this book as will international organisations, think tanks, and government agencies dealing with R&D and innovation. The book will also appeal to strategists and managers of R&D intensive companies.