The United States currently lacks a comprehensive strategy for countering the threat of terrorism involving nuclear, radiological, chemical, and-most glaringly -- biological weapons. Although federal, state, and local governments have made impressive strides to prepare for terrorism involving these weapons, the whole remains less than the sum of the parts. As a result, the United States is now at a crossroads. Although credit must be given where due, the time has come for a cold-eyed assessment and evaluation based on program reviews and other measures of effectiveness. This report offers such an assessment, providing a road map of near- and long-term priorities for senior federal officials to marshal federal, state, local, private sector, and nongovernmental resources for defending the U.S. homeland against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) terrorism.