The nipple and areola are the crucial interface between the breast and the infant. Problems with these structures, particularly pain and trauma, represent one of the most frequent causes of early termination of breastfeeding. Clinics in Human Lactation: The Nipple and Areola in Breastfeeding and Lactation examines the nipple and areola through a thorough description of the structure of the nipple, how it functions, its problems, and suggested solutions. New techniques have allowed the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structures of the nipple to be visualized, helping clinicians gain a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of this specialized feature of the breast. This book covers the newest data in the structure and function of the nipple and areola gathered from computer reconstruction of sectioned tissue, ultrasound, and other study modalities. Topics range from common problems with suggested solutions to newer thoughts on remedies for sore nipples, such as peppermint gel and ozonated olive oil. Practical and usable care plans are provided for problematic situations. Figures, tables, boxes, and charts help summarize and enhance the usefulness of the book. This unique reference is a departure from the standard information found in text books and is specially designed as a practical resource for the busy clinician.