This monograph describes the Candoninae fauna of the Pilbara region, containing 84 species and 12 genera, of which 83 species and 11 genera are endemic. The Pilbara region has emerged since the Precambrian and is therefore the most ancient landscape on Earth. The underground life, discovered only recently in the calcrete systems, speaks clearly about the antiquity of the region. One of the most diverse groups thriving in these ancient systems is the ostracode subfamily Candoninae. The number of endemic taxa (83 species, 11 genera, and 1 tribe) illuminates the conservation value of the entire region, which is more than in the ancient Lake Baikal. This exceptional fauna has a separate position on the phylogenetic tree of Candoninae, presented here for the first time. Therefore, this monograph is not only a story about one fauna but also about the entire subfamily.