The book mostly focuses upon the calibration of industrial robot manipulators. It describes the reasons for calibrating robots, the complete process, the situation in industry today, and future prospects. It takes the scientific aspect as a basis, but linked with the industrial world through practical methods and follow-up. To help with the general understanding, it explains from an historical point of view, how the evolution of technologies has enabled us to reach the current level of knowledge. Through the successes and failures of industrial examples it provides the reason calibration is a major aspect for fulfilling the requirements of an innovative automated manufacturing line.