Illustrative examples from recent research publications and classic studies are prominently featured throughout the book. Research techniques are highlighted in special interest boxes. Illustrations and descriptions of research techniques are provided with examples such as fire--scars from trees used to reconstruct disturbance, fossil pollen used to reconstruct vegetation change and plant migration, transect and quadrate sampling. Includes key biogeographical theories that link space and time to the distribution of life. Some of these theories include: 1. Ranges, Reflicts, Refuges, Corridors, Barriers, 2. Centers of Origins, 3. Cladistics, 4. Variance, 5. Island BioGeography, 6. Diversity Theory, 7. Gap Analysis for Conservation.