The access and benefit-sharing (ABS) policy process of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and wider discussions about the ethical and conservation issues arising from the commercial use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge, depend upon a well-developed understanding of the activities known broadly as 'bioprospecting'. However, the pace at which our understanding of genetic and other biological resources is accelerating, and market and industry trends are also undergoing constant change. This book provides information and insights into current practices and trends in biodiversity research and bioprospecting, including for potential medicines, food and cosmetics. It presents background information on markets, research and development, and explores recent extraordinary developments in science and technology and their implications for ABS policy development and implementation. The authors present a brief history of the commercial use of biodiversity, and review key trends across sectors. The book continues with chapters devoted to the main industry sectors, including pharmaceuticals and healthcare, agriculture, industrial process biotechnology and food and beverages. Each chapter includes explanatory boxes to describe key technologies and concepts which are less widely understood, as well as input from various stakeholders including industry representatives, NGOs and researchers. It concludes with a review of industry awareness of and engagement with the CBD, ABS and other policy processes. It is an invaluable resource for all concerned with commercial bioprospecting and the implementation of ABS laws and regulations, particularly in light of the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol.