The concept of flow injection analysis (FIA) was first proposed in 1975 by Ruzicka and Hansen, and this initiated a field of research that would, over more than three decades, involve thousands of researchers, and which has to date resulted in close to 20,000 publications in the international scientific literature. Since its introduction, a number of books, including some specialized monographs, have been published on this subject with the latest in 2000. However, in this decade there has been a number of significant advances in the flow analysis area, and in particular in sequential injection analysis (SIA) techniques, and more recently with the introduction of Lab on a Valve (LOV) and bead injection flow systems. This book aims to cover the most important advances in these new areas, as well as in classical FIA, which still remains the most popular flow analysis technique used in analytical practice. Topics covered in the 23 chapters include the fundamental and underlying principles of flow analysis and associated equipment, the fluid-dynamic theory of FIA, an extensive coverage of detection methods (e.g. atomic and molecular spectrometry, electroanalytical methods). In addition, there are several chapters on on-line separation (e.g. filtration, gas diffusion, dialysis, pervaporation, solvent and membrane extraction, and chromatography), as well as on other sample pretreatment techniques, such as digestion. The book also incorporates several chapters on major areas of application of flow analysis in industrial process monitoring (e.g food and beverages, drugs and pharmaceuticals), environmental and agricultural analysis and life sciences. The contributing authors, who include the founders of flow injection analysis, are all leading experts in flow analytical techniques, and their chapters not only provide a critical review of the current state of this area, but also suggest future trends.