A History of the Excluded: Making Family a Refuge from State in Twentieth-century Tanzania

The twentieth-century history of Njombe, the Southern Highlands district of Tanzania, can aptly be summed up as exclusion within incorporation. Njombe was marginalized even as it was incorporated into the colonial economy. Njombe's people came to see themselves as excluded from agricultural markets, access to medical services, schooling - in short, from all opportunity to escape the impoverishing trap of migrant labour.