Food and Nutrition Board author

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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant ...
Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population. To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This, the second report of this series, provides a summary of the work of phase I of the study, and serves as the analytical underpinning for phase II in which the committee will report its final conclusions and recommendations.
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88.200000 USD

Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee to Review WIC Food Packages
Paperback / softback
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The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food ...
The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary
The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: * The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. * The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. * Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. * Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.
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54.60 USD

The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary

by Food Forum, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
Paperback / softback
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One-third of adults are now obese, and children's obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent in the past 30 years. The causes of the nation's obesity epidemic are multi-factorial, having much more to do with the absence of sidewalks and the limited availability of healthy and affordable foods ...
Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation
One-third of adults are now obese, and children's obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent in the past 30 years. The causes of the nation's obesity epidemic are multi-factorial, having much more to do with the absence of sidewalks and the limited availability of healthy and affordable foods than a lack of personal responsibility. The broad societal changes that are needed to prevent obesity will inevitably affect activity and eating environments and settings for all ages. Many aspects of the obesity problem have been identified and discussed; however, there has not been complete agreement on what needs to be done to accelerate progress. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention reviews previous studies and their recommendations and presents five key recommendations to accelerate meaningful change on a societal level during the next decade. The report suggests recommendations and strategies that, independently, can accelerate progress, but urges a systems approach of many strategies working in concert to maximize progress in accelerating obesity prevention. The recommendations in Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention include major reforms in access to and opportunities for physical activity; widespread reductions in the availability of unhealthy foods and beverages and increases in access to healthier options at affordable, competitive prices; an overhaul of the messages that surround Americans through marketing and education with respect to physical activity and food consumption; expansion of the obesity prevention support structure provided by health care providers, insurers, and employers; and schools as a major national focal point for obesity prevention. The report calls on all individuals, organizations, agencies, and sectors that do or can influence physical activity and nutrition environments to assess and begin to act on their potential roles as leaders in obesity prevention.
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81.90 USD

Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation

by Committee on Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
Paperback / softback
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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for apparently healthy people. This volume is the second of two reports in the DRI series aimed at providing specific guidance on the appropriate uses of the DRIs. The first report ...
Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for apparently healthy people. This volume is the second of two reports in the DRI series aimed at providing specific guidance on the appropriate uses of the DRIs. The first report provided guidance on appropriate methods for using DRIs in dietary assessment. This volume builds on the statistical foundations of the assessment report to provide specific guidance on how to use the appropriate DRIs in planning diets for individuals and for groups. Dietary planning, whether for an individual or a group, involves developing a diet that is nutritionally adequate without being excessive. The planning goal for individuals is to achieve recommended and adequate nutrient intakes using food-based guides. For group planning, the report presents a new approach based on considering the entire distribution of usual nutrient intakes rather than focusing on the mean intake of the group. The report stresses that dietary planning using the DRIs is a cyclical activity that involves assessment, planning, implementation, and reassessment. Nutrition and public health researchers, dietitians and nutritionists responsible for the education of the next generation of practitioners, and government professionals involved in the development and implementation of national diet and health assessments, public education efforts and food assistance programs will find this volume indispensable for setting intake goals for individuals and groups.
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58.01 USD

Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning

by Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Institute of Medicine
Paperback / softback
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How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of ...
A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System
How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.
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93.85 USD

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

by Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System, Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Food Forum was established in 1993 to allow science and technology leaders in the food industry, top administrators in several federal government agencies from the United States and Canada, representatives from consumer interest groups, and academicians to openly communicate in a neutral setting. The Food ...
Food Safety Policy, Science, and Risk Assessment: Strengthening the Connection, Workshop Proceedings
The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Food Forum was established in 1993 to allow science and technology leaders in the food industry, top administrators in several federal government agencies from the United States and Canada, representatives from consumer interest groups, and academicians to openly communicate in a neutral setting. The Food Forum provides a mechanism for these diverse groups to discuss food, food safety, and food technology issues and to identify possible approaches for addressing these issues by taking into consideration the often complex interactions among industry, regulatory agencies, consumers, and academia. The objective, however, is to illuminate issues, not to resolve them. Unlike study committees of the IOM, forums cannot provide advice or recommendations to any government agency or other organization. Similarly, workshop summaries or other products resulting from forum activities are precluded from reaching conclusions or recommendations but, instead, are intended to reflect the variety of opinions expressed by the participants. On July 13-14, 1999, the forum convened a workshop on Food Safety Policy, Science, and Risk Assessment: Strengthening the Connection. The purpose of the workshop was to address many of the issues that complicate the development of microbiological food safety policy, focusing on the use of science and risk assessment in establishing policy and in determining the utilization of food safety resources. The purpose was not to find fault with past food safety regulatory activities or food safety policy decisions. Rather, the goal was to determine what actions have been taken in the past to address food safety issues, to consider what influences led to the policies that were put in place, and to explore how improvements can be made in the future. This report is a summary of the workshop presentations. It is limited to the views and opinions of those invited to present at the workshop and reflects their concerns and areas of expertise. As such, the report does not provide a comprehensive review of the research and current status of food safety policy, science, and risk assessment. The organization of the report approximates the order of the presentations at the workshop. The identification of a speaker as an industry representative or a Food and Drug Administration representative is not intended to suggest that the individual spoke for that organization or others who work there.
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28.35 USD
Paperback
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There has been intense interest recently among the public and the media in the possibility that increased intakes of dietary antioxidants may protect against chronic disease. Many research programs are underway in this area. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of both ...
Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds
There has been intense interest recently among the public and the media in the possibility that increased intakes of dietary antioxidants may protect against chronic disease. Many research programs are underway in this area. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease, and it has been hypothesized that this is due in part to the presence of antioxidant compounds in fruits and vegetables. As a result, these compounds have been considered together by many people and loosely termed dietary antioxidants. Closer examination, however, reveals that compounds typically grouped together as dietary antioxidants can differ quite considerably from one another, both in terms of their chemical behavior and in terms of their biological properties. This report from the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board provides a proposed definition of dietary antioxidants so as to characterize the biological properties of these compounds.
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28.35 USD

Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds

by National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Paperback
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This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a ...
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc
This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is too much of a nutrient. Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also: * Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds. * Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role. * Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups. * Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health. This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.
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47.25 USD

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, Panel on Micronutrients
Paperback / softback
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Water Chemicals Codex
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32.290000 USD

Water Chemicals Codex

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Assembly of Life Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Water Treatment Chemicals
Paperback
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The U.S. Army Health Risk Appraisal group surveyed 400,000 active duty U.S. Army personnel in the late 1990s to determine whether or not those personnel met the dietary objectives of Healthy People 2000 (HP2000), a national agenda for health promotion and disease prevention. As reported by Yore et al. (2000), ...
Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel: Levels Needed for Cognitive and Physical Performance During Garrison Training
The U.S. Army Health Risk Appraisal group surveyed 400,000 active duty U.S. Army personnel in the late 1990s to determine whether or not those personnel met the dietary objectives of Healthy People 2000 (HP2000), a national agenda for health promotion and disease prevention. As reported by Yore et al. (2000), Army personnel generally did not meet the HP2000 goals for nutrition even though significant progress had been made during 1991-1998. Although the specific aspects of diet that would be relevant to this Committee on Mineral Requirements for Cognitive and Physical Performance of Military Personnel are lacking, the findings from this survey suggest that there are dietary problems in the military population. The potential for adverse effects of marginal mineral deficiencies among soldiers engaged in training or military operations and the prospect of improving military performance through mineral intakes have spurred the military's interest in this area of nutrition. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel provides background information on the current knowledge regarding soldiers' eating behaviors as well as on the physical and mental stress caused by military garrison training or operations. This report also offers facts on the mineral content of rations and its intake by military personnel and addresses the potential effects of nutrient deficiencies due to inadequate intake or higher requirements during military operations. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel provides information and recommendations on the development and uses of MDRIs and a description of strategies to increase intake of specific minerals, whether via usual foods, fortification, or supplementation. This report features a description of the metabolism and needs for selected minerals by military personnel under garrison training, recommendations on mineral intake levels, and an assessment of mineral level adequacy in operational rations. This report also includes a prioritization of the research needed to answer information gaps and details of study designs required to gain such information.
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Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel: Levels Needed for Cognitive and Physical Performance During Garrison Training

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Committee on Mineral Requirements for Cognitive and Physical Performance of Military Personnel
Hardback
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Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave ...
Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth
Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave way to an emphasis on health-related fitness. Using appropriately selected measures to collected fitness data in youth will advance our understanding of how fitness among youth translates into better health. In Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, the IOM assesses the relationship between youth fitness test items and health outcomes, recommends the best fitness test items, provides guidance for interpreting fitness scores, and provides an agenda for needed research. The report concludes that selected cardiorespiratory endurance, musculoskeletal fitness, and body composition measures should be in fitness surveys and in schools. Collecting fitness data nationally and in schools helps with setting and achieving fitness goals and priorities for public health at an individual and national level.
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Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth
Hardback
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Since its introduction in 1943 Recommended Dietary Allowances has become the accepted source of nutrient allowances for healthy people. These Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are used throughout the food and health fields. Additionally, RDAs serve as the basis for the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, the Food and Drug Administration's standards ...
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Since its introduction in 1943 Recommended Dietary Allowances has become the accepted source of nutrient allowances for healthy people. These Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are used throughout the food and health fields. Additionally, RDAs serve as the basis for the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, the Food and Drug Administration's standards for nutrition labeling of foods. The 10th Edition includes research results and expert interpretations from years of progress in nutrition research since the previous edition and provides not only RDAs but also Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes --provisional values for nutrients where data were insufficient to set an RDA. Organized by nutrient for ready reference, the volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, sources of supply, effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes, relevant study results, and more. The volume concludes with the invaluable Summary Table of Recommended Dietary Allowances, a convenient and practical summary of the recommendations.
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20.10 USD

Recommended Dietary Allowances

by National Research Council, Commission on Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances
Hardback
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The time has come to initiate a new program of research on the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (commonly referred to as WIC). WIC is the third largest food assistance program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The program's scope is large, serving approximately 9.3 ...
Planning a WIC Research Agenda: Workshop Summary
The time has come to initiate a new program of research on the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (commonly referred to as WIC). WIC is the third largest food assistance program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The program's scope is large, serving approximately 9.3 million low-income women, infants, and children at nutritional risk. Through federal grants to states, participants receive three types of benefits: 1) a supplemental food package tailored to specific age groups for infants and children; 2) nutrition education, including breastfeeding support; and 3) referrals to health services and social services. To cover program costs for fiscal year (FY) 2010, Congress appropriated $7.252 billion. Congress also appropriated $15 million for research related to the program for FY 2010. The timing of the funding for WIC research is propitious. In October 2009, USDA issued regulations that made substantial revisions to the WIC food package. These revisions are the first major change in the food package since the program's inception in 1972. Over the intervening years WIC has expanded greatly, Medicaid coverage has increased, large changes have occurred in the racial and ethnic backgrounds and socioeconomic status of WIC participants as well as in public health services, and obesity rates have increased substantially among the general population. To guide its planning for the use of the $15 million allocated for WIC research, the Food and Nutrition Service of USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to conduct a two-day public workshop on emerging research needs for WIC. As requested, the workshop included presentations and discussions to illuminate issues related to future WIC research issues, methodological challenges, and solutions. The workshop also planned for a program of research to determine the effects of WIC on maternal and child health outcomes.
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USD

Planning a WIC Research Agenda: Workshop Summary

by Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Since 1938 and 1941, nutrient intake recommendations have been issued to the public in Canada and the United States, respectively. Currently defined as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), these values are a set of standards established by consensus committees under the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and used ...
Guiding Principles for Developing Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease
Since 1938 and 1941, nutrient intake recommendations have been issued to the public in Canada and the United States, respectively. Currently defined as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), these values are a set of standards established by consensus committees under the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and used for planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and groups. In 2015, a multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and U.S. government DRI steering committees convened to identify key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish DRI values. Their report, Options for Basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on Chronic Disease: Report from a Joint US-/Canadian-Sponsored Working Group, outlined and proposed ways to address conceptual and methodological challenges related to the work of future DRI Committees. This report assesses the options presented in the previous report and determines guiding principles for including chronic disease endpoints for food substances that will be used by future National Academies committees in establishing DRIs.
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68.250000 USD

Guiding Principles for Developing Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease

by Committee on the Development of Guiding Principles for the Inclusion of Chronic Disease Endpoints in Future Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Since 1994 the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board has been involved in developing an expanded approach to developing dietary reference standards. This approach, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), provides a set of four nutrient-based reference values designed to replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in the United States ...
Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment
Since 1994 the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board has been involved in developing an expanded approach to developing dietary reference standards. This approach, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), provides a set of four nutrient-based reference values designed to replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in the United States and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) in Canada. These reference values include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). To date, several volumes in this series have been published. This new book, Applications in Dietary Assessment, provides guidance to nutrition and health research professionals on the application of the new DRIs. It represents both a how to manual and a why manual. Specific examples of both appropriate and inappropriate uses of the DRIs in assessing nutrient adequacy of groups and of individuals are provided, along with detailed statistical approaches for the methods described. In addition, a clear distinction is made between assessing individuals and assessing groups as the approaches used are quite different. Applications in Dietary Assessment will be an essential companion to any-or all-of the DRI volumes.
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28.35 USD

Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, A Report of the Subcommittees on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes and Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients
Paperback / softback
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In 2010 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended a framework for the evaluation of biomarkers in the chronic disease setting. Published in the book Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease, the framework is intended to bring consistency and transparency to the previously disparate process of biomarker evaluation. ...
Perspectives on Biomarker and Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Discussion Forum Summary
In 2010 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended a framework for the evaluation of biomarkers in the chronic disease setting. Published in the book Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease, the framework is intended to bring consistency and transparency to the previously disparate process of biomarker evaluation. Following the book's release, the IOM convened a 2-day discussion forum in Washington, DC, in order to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to learn about, react to, and discuss the book. Presentations reviewed the authoring committee's work process, recommendations, and provided perspectives on the book from the point of view of participants. Thomas Fleming, professor of biostatistics and statistics at the University of Washington, gave a keynote presentation on the critical issues in the validation of surrogate endpoints, a specific use of a biomarker. The present volume recounts the discussion forum proceedings, focusing in turn on each represented sector. A summary of Dr. Fleming's presentation then sets the committee's recommendations within the context of biomarker utilization. Lastly, this summary examines the main themes raised by stakeholders, and the challenges and opportunities presented to stakeholders by the book's recommendations.
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27.15 USD

Perspectives on Biomarker and Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Discussion Forum Summary

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Health Care Services, Committee on Qualification of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease
Paperback / softback
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On June 21 22, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (TM)s Food and Nutrition Board convened a workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the range of policies and programs that exist at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels to limit sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in children birth ...
Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Young Children: Proceedings of a Workshop
On June 21 22, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (TM)s Food and Nutrition Board convened a workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the range of policies and programs that exist at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels to limit sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in children birth to 5 years of age. Topics examined over the course of the 1.5-day workshop included prevalence and trends in beverage intake among young children; beverage intake guidelines applicable to the age range of interest; challenges and opportunities of influencing beverage consumption; the role of industry in beverage intake; and knowledge gaps and research needs. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
56.700000 USD

Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Young Children: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Food and Nutrition Board, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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One of the many benefits of the U.S. food system is a safe, nutritious, and consistent food supply. However, the same system also places significant strain on land, water, air, and other natural resources. A better understanding of the food-environment synergies and trade-offs associated with the U.S. food system would ...
Sustainable Diets: Food for Healthy People and a Healthy Planet: Workshop Summary
One of the many benefits of the U.S. food system is a safe, nutritious, and consistent food supply. However, the same system also places significant strain on land, water, air, and other natural resources. A better understanding of the food-environment synergies and trade-offs associated with the U.S. food system would help to reduce this strain. Many experts would like to use that knowledge to develop dietary recommendations on the basis of environmental as well as nutritional considerations. But identifying and quantifying those synergies and trade-offs, let alone acting on them, is a challenge in and of itself. The difficulty stems in part from the reality that experts in the fields of nutrition, agricultural science, and natural resource use often do not regularly collaborate with each other, with the exception of some international efforts. Sustainable Diets is the summary of a workshop convened by The Institute of Medicine's Food Forum and Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine in May 2013 to engender dialogue between experts in nutrition and experts in agriculture and natural resource sustainability and to explore current and emerging knowledge on the food and nutrition policy implications of the increasing environmental constraints on the food system. Experts explored the relationship between human health and the environment, including the identification and quantification of the synergies and trade-offs of their impact. This report explores the role of the food price environment and how environmental sustainability can be incorporated into dietary guidance and considers research priorities, policy implications, and drivers of consumer behaviors that will enable sustainable food choices.
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39.00 USD

Sustainable Diets: Food for Healthy People and a Healthy Planet: Workshop Summary

by Food Forum, Food and Nutrition Board, Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Institute of Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention in June 2013 to examine income, race, and ethnicity, and how these factors intersect with childhood obesity and its prevention. Registered participants, along with viewers ...
Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight: Workshop Summary
Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention in June 2013 to examine income, race, and ethnicity, and how these factors intersect with childhood obesity and its prevention. Registered participants, along with viewers of a simultaneous webcast of the workshop, heard a series of presentations by researchers, policy makers, advocates, and other stakeholders focused on health disparities associated with income, race, ethnicity, and other characteristics and on how these factors intersect with obesity and its prevention. The workshop featured invited presentations and discussions concerning physical activity, healthy food access, food marketing and messaging, and the roles of employers, health care professionals, and schools. The IOM 2012 report Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention acknowledged that a variety of characteristics linked historically to social exclusion or discrimination, including race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, age, mental health, disability, sexual orientation or gender identity, geographic location, and immigrant status, can thereby affect opportunities for physical activity, healthy eating, health care, work, and education. In many parts of the United States, certain racial and ethnic groups and low-income individuals and families live, learn, work, and play in places that lack health-promoting resources such as parks, recreational facilities, high-quality grocery stores, and walkable streets. These same neighborhoods may have characteristics such as heavy traffic or other unsafe conditions that discourage people from walking or being physically active outdoors. The combination of unhealthy social and environmental risk factors, including limited access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity, can contribute to increased levels of chronic stress among community members, which have been linked to increased levels of sedentary activity and increased calorie consumption. Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight focuses on the key obesity prevention goals and recommendations outlined in Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention through the lens of health equity. This report explores critical aspects of obesity prevention, while discussing potential future research, policy, and action that could lead to equity in opportunities to achieve a healthy weight.
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34.27 USD

Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight: Workshop Summary

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention
Paperback / softback
Book cover image
Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave ...
Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth
Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave way to an emphasis on health-related fitness. Using appropriately selected measures to collected fitness data in youth will advance our understanding of how fitness among youth translates into better health. In Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, the IOM assesses the relationship between youth fitness test items and health outcomes, recommends the best fitness test items, provides guidance for interpreting fitness scores, and provides an agenda for needed research. The report concludes that selected cardiorespiratory endurance, musculoskeletal fitness, and body composition measures should be in fitness surveys and in schools. Collecting fitness data nationally and in schools helps with setting and achieving fitness goals and priorities for public health at an individual and national level.
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42.52 USD

Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth
Paperback / softback
Book cover image
According to surveys, the public believes the chickens it is buying are wholesome. Poultry Inspection: The Basis for a Risk-Assessment Approach looks at current inspection procedures to determine how effective the Food Safety Inspection Service is in finding dangerous levels of contaminants and disease-producing microorganisms. The book first describes the ...
Poultry Inspection: The Basis for a Risk-Assessment Approach
According to surveys, the public believes the chickens it is buying are wholesome. Poultry Inspection: The Basis for a Risk-Assessment Approach looks at current inspection procedures to determine how effective the Food Safety Inspection Service is in finding dangerous levels of contaminants and disease-producing microorganisms. The book first describes the history behind the current system, noting that the amount of poultry inspected has increased dramatically while techniques and regulations have remained constant since 1968. The steps involved in an inspection are then described, followed by a discussion of alternative and innovative inspection procedures. It then provides a risk-assessment model for poultry, including submodels for each stage of processing. Risk assessment is used to protect health, establish priorities, identify problems, and set acceptable levels of risk. The model is applied both to microbiological hazards and to chemical contaminants.
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USD

Poultry Inspection: The Basis for a Risk-Assessment Approach

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Public Health Risk Assessment of Poultry Inspection Programs
Paperback / softback
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Since 1980, childhood obesity rates have more than tripled in the United States. Recent data show that almost one-third of children over 2 years of age are already overweight or obese. While the prevalence of childhood obesity appears to have plateaued in recent years, the magnitude of the problem remains ...
Legal Strategies in Childhood Obesity Prevention: Workshop Summary
Since 1980, childhood obesity rates have more than tripled in the United States. Recent data show that almost one-third of children over 2 years of age are already overweight or obese. While the prevalence of childhood obesity appears to have plateaued in recent years, the magnitude of the problem remains unsustainably high and represents an enormous public health concern. All options for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic must therefore be explored. In the United States, legal approaches have successfully reduced other threats to public health, such as the lack of passive restraints in automobiles and the use of tobacco. The question then arises of whether laws, regulations, and litigation can likewise be used to change practices and policies that contribute to obesity. On October 21, 2010, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) held a workshop to bring together stakeholders to discuss the current and future legal strategies aimed at combating childhood obesity. Legal Strategies in Childhood Obesity Prevention summarizes the proceedings of that workshop. The report examines the challenges involved in implementing public health initiatives by using legal strategies to elicit change. It also discusses circumstances in which legal strategies are needed and effective. This workshop was created only to explore the boundaries of potential legal approaches to address childhood obesity, and therefore, does not contain recommendations for the use of such approaches.
USD

Legal Strategies in Childhood Obesity Prevention: Workshop Summary

by Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention
Hardback
Book cover image
Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this book, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, ...
Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects
Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this book, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them. The book offers a framework to guide federal agencies in selecting the route of safety assessment. It identifies and recommends several pre- and post-market approaches to guide the assessment of unintended compositional changes that could result from genetically modified foods and research avenues to fill the knowledge gaps.
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Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health
Hardback
Book cover image
This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a ...
DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc
This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is too much of a nutrient. Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also: * Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds. * Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role. * Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups. * Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health. This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.
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62.62 USD

DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

by National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, Panel on Micronutrients
Hardback
Book cover image
The prevalence of childhood obesity is so high in the United States that it may reduce the life expectancy of today's generation of children. While parents and other adult caregivers play a fundamental role in teaching children about healthy behaviors, even the most positive efforts can be undermined by local ...
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity
The prevalence of childhood obesity is so high in the United States that it may reduce the life expectancy of today's generation of children. While parents and other adult caregivers play a fundamental role in teaching children about healthy behaviors, even the most positive efforts can be undermined by local environments that are poorly suited to supporting healthy behaviors. For example, many communities lack ready sources of healthy food choices, such as supermarkets and grocery stores. Or they may not provide safe places for children to walk or play. In such communities, even the most motivated child or adolescent may find it difficult to act in healthy ways. Local governments--with jurisdiction over many aspects of land use, food marketing, community planning, transportation, health and nutrition programs, and other community issues--are ideally positioned to promote behaviors that will help children and adolescents reach and maintain healthy weights. Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity presents a number of recommendations that touch on the vital role of government actions on all levels--federal, state, and local--in childhood obesity prevention. The book offers healthy eating and physical activity strategies for local governments to consider, making it an excellent resource for mayors, managers, commissioners, council members, county board members, and administrators.
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30.450000 USD

Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

by Transportation Research Board, Institute of Medicine, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention Actions for Local Governments
Paperback / softback
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