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Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in ...
Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts
Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss? Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, Reducing Coastal Risk states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources. Reducing Coastal Risk recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.
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63.14 USD

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

by Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning, Water Science and Technology Board, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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The science of animal nutrition has made significant advances in the past century. In looking back at the discoveries of the 20th century, we can appreciate the tremendous impact that animal nutrition has had on our lives. From the discovery of vitamins and the sweeping shift in the use of ...
Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium
The science of animal nutrition has made significant advances in the past century. In looking back at the discoveries of the 20th century, we can appreciate the tremendous impact that animal nutrition has had on our lives. From the discovery of vitamins and the sweeping shift in the use of oilseeds to replace animal products as dietary protein sources for animals during the war times of the 1900s-to our integral understanding of nutrients as regulators of gene expression today-animal nutrition has been the cornerstone for scientific advances in many areas. At the milestone of their 70th year of service to the nation, the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) sought to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of recent discoveries and directions in animal nutrition for the new century we are embarking upon. With financial support from the NRC, the committee was able to organize and host a symposium that featured scientists from many backgrounds who were asked to share their ideas about the potential of animal nutrition to address current problems and future challenges.
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32.40 USD

Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium

by Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
Paperback / softback
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Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Potential health risks during spaceflights include short-term health consequences from being in microgravity, as well as long-term health consequences that arise, or continue, months or years after a flight. Additional health considerations are risks ...
Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Potential health risks during spaceflights include short-term health consequences from being in microgravity, as well as long-term health consequences that arise, or continue, months or years after a flight. Additional health considerations are risks posed by exposure to environmental contaminants onboard spacecraft. Because the International Space Station and spacecraft are closed environments that require recirculation of air and water supplies, some contamination of the air and water will occur. Even with onboard air and water purification systems, chemicals will accumulate in the air and water as they recirculate or are recycled onboard. Therefore, it is necessary for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to identify hazardous contaminants and determine exposure levels that are not expected to pose a health risk to astronauts. NASA uses spacecraft maximum allowance concentrations (SMACs) and spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) to provide guidance on acceptable exposures to air and water contaminants during normal operations and emergency situations. Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines updates the methods for establishing SMACs and SWEGs and assists NASA with identifying chemicals that need updated SMACs or SWEGs and new chemicals for which these guidelines should be developed.
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30.450000 USD

Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines

by Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Although the progress of environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades remains slow overall, there have been improvements in the pace of restoration and in the relationship between the federal and state partners during the last two years. However, the importance of several challenges related to water quantity and quality ...
Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review - 2010
Although the progress of environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades remains slow overall, there have been improvements in the pace of restoration and in the relationship between the federal and state partners during the last two years. However, the importance of several challenges related to water quantity and quality have become clear, highlighting the difficulty in achieving restoration goals for all ecosystem components in all portions of the Everglades. Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades explores these challenges. The book stresses that rigorous scientific analyses of the tradeoffs between water quality and quantity and between the hydrologic requirements of Everglades features and species are needed to inform future prioritization and funding decisions.
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75.08 USD

Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review - 2010

by Committee on Independent Scientific Review of Everglades Restoration Progress, Water Science and Technology Board, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Growing numbers of pet owners are giving their pets dietary supplements in hopes of supporting their health. Many people presume that supplements are safer than drugs, but the reality is that there are very limited safety data on dietary supplements for pets. Many challenges stand in the way of determining ...
Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats
Growing numbers of pet owners are giving their pets dietary supplements in hopes of supporting their health. Many people presume that supplements are safer than drugs, but the reality is that there are very limited safety data on dietary supplements for pets. Many challenges stand in the way of determining whether animal dietary supplements are safe and at what dosage. Supplements considered safe in humans and other species are not always safe in horses, dogs, and cats. An improved adverse event reporting system is badly needed. Also, the absence of laws and regulations that specifically address animal dietary supplements causes considerable confusion to the industry and to the public. Clear and precise regulations are needed to allow only safe dietary supplements on the market. This book examines issues in determining safety of animal dietary supplements in general, and the safety of three animal dietary supplements; lutein, evening primrose oil, and garlic, in particular.
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331.01 USD

Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats

by Committee on Examining the Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
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The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives and provides, it ...
Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment
The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives and provides, it generates knowledge that in turn affects society in myriad ways. The United States has experienced and continues to face the threat of disasters, and, like all entities, the academic biomedical research community can be affected. Recent disasters, from hurricanes to cyber-attacks, and their consequences have shown that the investments of the federal government and of the many other entities that sponsor academic research are not uniformly secure. First and foremost, events that damage biomedical laboratories and the institutions that house them can have impacts on the safety and well-being of humans and research animals. Furthermore, disasters can affect career trajectories, scientific progress, and financial stability at the individual and institutional levels. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community offers recommendations and guidance to enhance the disaster resilience of the academic biomedical research community, with a special focus on the potential actions researchers, academic research institutions, and research sponsors can take to mitigate the impact of future disasters.
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99.750000 USD

Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Health and Medicine Division, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of Academic Research Communities
Paperback / softback
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The Arctic has been undergoing significant changes in recent years. Average temperatures are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world. The extent and thickness of sea ice is rapidly declining. Such changes may have an impact on atmospheric conditions outside the region. Several hypotheses for how ...
Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop
The Arctic has been undergoing significant changes in recent years. Average temperatures are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world. The extent and thickness of sea ice is rapidly declining. Such changes may have an impact on atmospheric conditions outside the region. Several hypotheses for how Arctic warming may be influencing mid-latitude weather patterns have been proposed recently. For example, Arctic warming could lead to a weakened jet stream resulting in more persistent weather patterns in the mid-latitudes. Or Arctic sea ice loss could lead to an increase of snow on high-latitude land, which in turn impacts the jet stream resulting in cold Eurasian and North American winters. These and other potential connections between a warming Arctic and mid-latitude weather are the subject of active research. Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns is the summary of a workshop convened in September 2013 by the National Research Council to review our current understanding and to discuss research needed to better understand proposed linkages. A diverse array of experts examined linkages between a warming Arctic and mid-latitude weather patterns. The workshop included presentations from leading researchers representing a range of views on this topic. The workshop was organized to allow participants to take a global perspective and consider the influence of the Arctic in the context of forcing from other components of the climate system, such as changes in the tropics, ocean circulation, and mid-latitude sea surface temperature. This report discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms that link declines in Arctic sea ice cover, loss of high-latitude snow cover, changes in Arctic-region energy fluxes, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the occurrence of extreme weather events; possible implications of more severe loss of summer Arctic sea ice upon weather patterns at lower latitudes; major gaps in our understanding, and observational and/or modeling efforts that are needed to fill those gaps; and current opportunities and limitations for using Arctic sea ice predictions to assess the risk of temperature/precipitation anomalies and extreme weather events over northern continents.
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48.300000 USD

Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop

by Committee on Linkages Between Arctic Sea Ice Loss and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: a Workshop, Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate, Polar Research Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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As the importance of the oceans to society grows, so does the need to understand their variation on many temporal and spatial scales. This need to understand ocean change is compelling scientists to move beyond traditional expeditionary modes of investigation. Observing systems will enable the study of processes in the ...
Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories
As the importance of the oceans to society grows, so does the need to understand their variation on many temporal and spatial scales. This need to understand ocean change is compelling scientists to move beyond traditional expeditionary modes of investigation. Observing systems will enable the study of processes in the ocean basins over varying timescales and spatial scales, providing the scientific basis for addressing important societal concerns such as climate change, natural hazards, and the health and viability of living and non-living resources along our coasts and in the open ocean. The book evaluates the scientific and technical readiness to move ahead with the establishment of a research-driven ocean observatory network, and highlights outstanding issues. These issues include the status of planning and development, factors that affect the timing of construction and installation, the cost and requirements for maintenance and operations, needs for sensor development and data management, the impact on availability of ships and deep submergence facilities, and the role of research-based observatories within national and international operational ocean observing systems being developed and implemented.
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63.000000 USD

Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories

by Committee on the Implementation of a Seafloor Observatory Network for Oceanographic Research, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever ...
Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences
Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever more important in an economically and geopolitically connected world, and contributes vital information to policy and decision makers charged with addressing societal interests in the ocean. Science provides the knowledge necessary to realize the benefits and manage the risks of the ocean. Comprehensive understanding of the global ocean is fundamental to forecasting and managing risks from severe storms, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and managing ocean resources. In the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is the primary funder of the basic research which underlies advances in our understanding of the ocean. Sea Change addresses the strategic investments necessary at NSF to ensure a robust ocean scientific enterprise over the next decade. This survey provides guidance from the ocean sciences community on research and facilities priorities for the coming decade and makes recommendations for funding priorities.
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54.60 USD

Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences

by Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Committee On Guidance For NSF On National Ocean Science Research Priorities
Paperback / softback
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What role does the ocean play in global climate change? Although not fully understood, there is general agreement that it is significant. Therefore, the scientific community has initiated large-scale research programs based on studies of the ocean and its relation to global climate and climate-related processes. This volume provides brief ...
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs
What role does the ocean play in global climate change? Although not fully understood, there is general agreement that it is significant. Therefore, the scientific community has initiated large-scale research programs based on studies of the ocean and its relation to global climate and climate-related processes. This volume provides brief summaries and reports on the progress of the major oceanographic research programs. It looks at both programs that study processes that occur over periods ranging from days to hundreds of years--the contemporary system--and those that seek to understand long-term variations ranging from thousands to millions of years--the geological perspective.
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26.250000 USD

The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs

by Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
Paperback / softback
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The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite ...
Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean
The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.
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73.37 USD

Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean

by Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for beef cattle. The cattle industry has undergone ...
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition
Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for beef cattle. The cattle industry has undergone considerable changes since the seventh revised edition was published in 2000 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate. The eighth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle builds on the previous editions. A great deal of new research has been published during the past 14 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of beef in all stages of life, this volume includes new information about phosphorus and sulfur contents; a review of nutritional and feeding strategies to minimize nutrient losses in manure and reduce greenhouse gas production; a discussion of the effect of feeding on the nutritional quality and food safety of beef; new information about nutrient metabolism and utilization; new information on feed additives that alter rumen metabolism and postabsorptive metabolism; and future areas of needed research. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on beef cattle nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious beef production.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition

by Committee On Nutrient Requirements Of Beef Cattle, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Research Council
Hardback
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Updating two previous National Research Council publications, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition, 1985, and Nutrient Requirements of Goats, First Edition, 1981, this new book provides an evaluation of the scientific literature on the nutrient requirements of small ruminants in all stages of life. In addition, effects of the ...
Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids
Updating two previous National Research Council publications, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition, 1985, and Nutrient Requirements of Goats, First Edition, 1981, this new book provides an evaluation of the scientific literature on the nutrient requirements of small ruminants in all stages of life. In addition, effects of the environment, feed additives, and metabolism modifiers on nutrient requirements are addressed. Proper formulation of diets for small ruminants depends on adequate knowledge of their nutrient requirements. These requirements depend on the breed and age of the animal and whether he or she is exercising, pregnant, or lactating. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants brings together a summary of this latest data with new and expanded information on the composition of feeds commonly consumed by small ruminants, both domestic and wild. For the first time this authoritative reference work includes information on cervids and camelids. Primarily intended for animal nutritionists, veterinarians, and other scientists, some sections will be useful to individual sheep and goat owners and managers and to those responsible for the care and management of wildlife species. As both a practical and a technical reference book, this material is written to ensure that diets of small ruminants contain adequate amounts of nutrients and that intakes of certain nutrients are not so excessive that they inhibit performance or impair health.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids

by Committee on the Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
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Chronic and episodic water shortages are becoming common in many regions of the United States, and population growth in water-scarce regions further compounds the challenges. Increasingly, alternative water sources such as graywater-untreated wastewater that does not include water from the toilet but generally includes water from bathroom sinks, showers, bathtubs, ...
Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits
Chronic and episodic water shortages are becoming common in many regions of the United States, and population growth in water-scarce regions further compounds the challenges. Increasingly, alternative water sources such as graywater-untreated wastewater that does not include water from the toilet but generally includes water from bathroom sinks, showers, bathtubs, clothes washers, and laundry sinks- and stormwater-water from rainfall or snow that can be measured downstream in a pipe, culvert, or stream shortly after the precipitation event-are being viewed as resources to supplement scarce water supplies rather than as waste to be discharged as rapidly as possible. Graywater and stormwater can serve a range of non-potable uses, including irrigation, toilet flushing, washing, and cooling, although treatment may be needed. Stormwater may also be used to recharge groundwater, which may ultimately be tapped for potable use. In addition to providing additional sources of local water supply, harvesting stormwater has many potential benefits, including energy savings, pollution prevention, and reducing the impacts of urban development on urban streams. Similarly, the reuse of graywater can enhance water supply reliability and extend the capacity of existing wastewater systems in growing cities. Despite the benefits of using local alternative water sources to address water demands, many questions remain that have limited the broader application of graywater and stormwater capture and use. In particular, limited information is available on the costs, benefits, and risks of these projects, and beyond the simplest applications many state and local public health agencies have not developed regulatory frameworks for full use of these local water resources. To address these issues, Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies analyzes the risks, costs, and benefits on various uses of graywater and stormwater. This report examines technical, economic, regulatory, and social issues associated with graywater and stormwater capture for a range of uses, including non-potable urban uses, irrigation, and groundwater recharge. Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies considers the quality and suitability of water for reuse, treatment and storage technologies, and human health and environmental risks of water reuse. The findings and recommendations of this report will be valuable for water managers, citizens of states under a current drought, and local and state health and environmental agencies.
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67.200000 USD

Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits

by Committee on the Beneficial Use of Graywater and Stormwater: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits, Water Science and Technology Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the Oceanography in 2025 workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in ...
Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop
On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the Oceanography in 2025 workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in oceanography, with an emphasis on physical processes. The focus centered on research and technology needs, trends, and barriers that may impact the field of oceanography over the next 16 years, and highlighted specific areas of interest: submesoscale processes, air-sea interactions, basic and applied research, instrumentation and vehicles, ocean infrastructure, and education. To guide the white papers and drive discussions, four questions were posed to participants: What research questions could be answered? What will remain unanswered? What new technologies could be developed? How will research be conducted?
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63.000000 USD

Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Deborah Glickson, Committee on Oceanography in 2025: A Workshop, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Deep-diving manned submersibles, such as Alvin, which gained worldwide fame when researchers used it to reach the wreck of the Titanic, have helped advance deep-ocean science. But many scholars in this field have noted that the number and capabilities of today's underwater vehicles no longer meet current scientific demands. At ...
Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research
Deep-diving manned submersibles, such as Alvin, which gained worldwide fame when researchers used it to reach the wreck of the Titanic, have helped advance deep-ocean science. But many scholars in this field have noted that the number and capabilities of today's underwater vehicles no longer meet current scientific demands. At the same time, the relative value of manned and unmanned vehicles is often disputed. The report finds that new submersibles -- both manned and unmanned -- that are more capable than those in the current fleet are needed and would be of great value to the advancement of ocean research.
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35.82 USD

Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research

by Committee on Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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The coastlines of the United States are beautiful places to live, work and play. But, they are also very fragile areas whose ecosystems are vulnerable to mismanagement. There are many complex issues facing the ocean science community at the federal, state and local levels - this report reflects the conclusions ...
Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey
The coastlines of the United States are beautiful places to live, work and play. But, they are also very fragile areas whose ecosystems are vulnerable to mismanagement. There are many complex issues facing the ocean science community at the federal, state and local levels - this report reflects the conclusions and recommendations of the National Academies drawing on discussions with USGS as well as input from potential users, clients and collaborators of the Coastal and Marine Geology Program.
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49.49 USD

Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey

by Committee to Review the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
Paperback / softback
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Geodesy is the science of accurately measuring and understanding three fundamental properties of Earth: its geometric shape, its orientation in space, and its gravity field, as well as the changes of these properties with time. Over the past half century, the United States, in cooperation with international partners, has led ...
Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource
Geodesy is the science of accurately measuring and understanding three fundamental properties of Earth: its geometric shape, its orientation in space, and its gravity field, as well as the changes of these properties with time. Over the past half century, the United States, in cooperation with international partners, has led the development of geodetic techniques and instrumentation. Geodetic observing systems provide a significant benefit to society in a wide array of military, research, civil, and commercial areas, including sea level change monitoring, autonomous navigation, tighter low flying routes for strategic aircraft, precision agriculture, civil surveying, earthquake monitoring, forest structural mapping and biomass estimation, and improved floodplain mapping. Recognizing the growing reliance of a wide range of scientific and societal endeavors on infrastructure for precise geodesy, and recognizing geodetic infrastructure as a shared national resource, this book provides an independent assessment of the benefits provided by geodetic observations and networks, as well as a plan for the future development and support of the infrastructure needed to meet the demand for increasingly greater precision. Precise Geodetic Infrastructure makes a series of focused recommendations for upgrading and improving specific elements of the infrastructure, for enhancing the role of the United States in international geodetic services, for evaluating the requirements for a geodetic workforce for the coming decades, and for providing national coordination and advocacy for the various agencies and organizations that contribute to the geodetic infrastructure.
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81.90 USD

Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource

by Committee on the National Requirements for Precision Geodetic Infrastructure, Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics, Board on Earth Sciences & Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, ...
Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond
Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and implementation challenges in areas such as infrastructure, student education and training, faculty advancement, and inter-institutional partnerships.
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51.19 USD

Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond

by Committee on Key Challenge Areas for Convergence and Health, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including ...
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use: *Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals. *Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. *Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more. *Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia. *Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
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37.53 USD

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

by Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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Since 1944, the National Research Council has published 10 editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since ...
Nutrient Requirements of Swine
Since 1944, the National Research Council has published 10 editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since the tenth edition was published in 1998 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate. The eleventh revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine builds on the previous editions published by the National Research Council. A great deal of new research has been published during the last 15 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of swine in all stages of life, this volume includes information about feed ingredients from the biofuels industry and other new ingredients, requirements for digestible phosphorus and concentrations of it in feed ingredients, a review of the effects of feed additives and feed processing, and strategies to increase nutrient retention and thus reduce fecal and urinary excretions that could contribute to environmental pollution. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated. Nutrient Requirements of Swine represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on swine nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious swine production.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Swine

by Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
Book cover image
Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to ...
Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values
Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.
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82.950000 USD

Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

by Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions ...
Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs. Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.
63.000000 USD

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors
Paperback / softback
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Aquaculture now supplies half of the seafood and fisheries products consumed worldwide and is gaining international significance as a source of food and income. Future demands for seafood and fisheries products can only be met by expanded aquaculture production. Such production will likely become more intensive and will depend increasingly ...
Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp
Aquaculture now supplies half of the seafood and fisheries products consumed worldwide and is gaining international significance as a source of food and income. Future demands for seafood and fisheries products can only be met by expanded aquaculture production. Such production will likely become more intensive and will depend increasingly on nutritious and efficient aquaculture feeds containing ingredients from sustainable sources. To meet this challenge, Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp and supporting nutritional science. This edition incorporates new material and significant updates to information in the 1993 edition. It also examines the practical aspects of feeding of fish and shrimp. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp will be a key resource for everyone involved in aquaculture and for others responsible for the feeding and care of fish and shrimp. It will also aid scientists in developing new and improved approaches to satisfy the demands of the growing aquaculture industry.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp

by Committee on the Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
Book cover image
Alluvial fans are gently sloping, fan-shaped landforms common at the base of mountain ranges in arid and semiarid regions such as the American West. Floods on alluvial fans, although characterized by relatively shallow depths, strike with little if any warning, can travel at extremely high velocities, and can carry a ...
Alluvial Fan Flooding
Alluvial fans are gently sloping, fan-shaped landforms common at the base of mountain ranges in arid and semiarid regions such as the American West. Floods on alluvial fans, although characterized by relatively shallow depths, strike with little if any warning, can travel at extremely high velocities, and can carry a tremendous amount of sediment and debris. Such flooding presents unique problems to federal and state planners in terms of quantifying flood hazards, predicting the magnitude at which those hazards can be expected at a particular location, and devising reliable mitigation strategies. Alluvial Fan Flooding attempts to improve our capability to determine whether areas are subject to alluvial fan flooding and provides a practical perspective on how to make such a determination. The book presents criteria for determining whether an area is subject to flooding and provides examples of applying the definition and criteria to real situations in Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and elsewhere. The volume also contains recommendations for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which is primarily responsible for floodplain mapping, and for state and local decisionmakers involved in flood hazard reduction.
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53.810000 USD

Alluvial Fan Flooding

by Committee on Alluvial Fan Flooding, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a committee of experts, based on input from scientists and the public. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. It is organized ...
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- French Version
A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a committee of experts, based on input from scientists and the public. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use: * Institutional policies and responsibilities. The committee discusses areas that require policy attention: the role and function of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, protocols for animal care and use, occupational health and safety, personnel qualifications, and other areas. * Animal environment, husbandry, and management. The committee offers guidelines on how to design and run a management program, addressing environment, nutrition, sanitation, behavioral and social issues, genetics, nomenclature, and more. * Veterinary care. The committee discusses animal procurement and transportation, disease and preventive medicine, and surgery. The Guide addresses pain recognition and relief and issues surrounding euthanasia. * Physical plant. The committee identifies design and construction issues, providing guidelines for animal-room doors, drainage, noise control, surgery, and other areas. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities--a resource of proven value, now updated and expanded. This revision will be important to researchers, animal care technicians, facilities managers, administrators at research institutions, policymakers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
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40.95 USD

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- French Version

by Commission on Life Sciences, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
Paperback / softback
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Proper formulation of diets for horses depends on adequate knowledge of their nutrient requirements. These requirements depend on the breed and age of the horse and whether it is exercising, pregnant, or lactating. A great deal of new information has been accumulated since the publication 17 years ago of the ...
Nutrient Requirements of Horses: Sixth Revised Edition
Proper formulation of diets for horses depends on adequate knowledge of their nutrient requirements. These requirements depend on the breed and age of the horse and whether it is exercising, pregnant, or lactating. A great deal of new information has been accumulated since the publication 17 years ago of the last edition of Nutrient Requirements of Horses. This new edition features a detailed review of scientific literature, summarizing all the latest information, and provides a new set of requirements based on revised data. Also included is updated information on the composition of feeds, feed additives, and other compounds routinely fed to horses. The effects of physiological factors, such as exercise, and environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity, are covered, as well. Nutrient Requirements of Horses also contains information on several nutritional and metabolic diseases that horses often have. Designed primarily as a reference, both practical and technical, Nutrient Requirements of Horses is intended to ensure that the diets of horses and other equids contain adequate amounts of nutrients and that the intakes of certain nutrients are not so excessive that they inhibit performance or impair health. This book is primarily intended for animal nutritionists, veterinarians, and other scientists; however, individual horse owners and managers will also find some of this material useful. Professors who teach graduate courses in animal nutrition will find Nutrient Requirements of Horses beneficial as a textbook.
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119.44 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Horses: Sixth Revised Edition

by Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
Hardback
Book cover image
This letter is the abbreviated version of an update of the interim report on testing, evaluation, costs, and benefits of advanced spectroscopic portals (ASPs), issued by the National Academies' Committee on Advanced Spectroscopic Portals in June 2009 (NRC 2009). This letter incorporates findings of the committee since that report was ...
Evaluating Testing, Costs, and Benefits of Advanced Spectroscopic Portals: Final Report (Abbreviated Version)
This letter is the abbreviated version of an update of the interim report on testing, evaluation, costs, and benefits of advanced spectroscopic portals (ASPs), issued by the National Academies' Committee on Advanced Spectroscopic Portals in June 2009 (NRC 2009). This letter incorporates findings of the committee since that report was written, and it sharpens and clarifies the messages of the interim report based on subsequent committee investigations of more recent work by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The key messages in this letter, which is the final report from the committee, are stated briefly in the synopsis on the next page and described more fully in the sections that follow. The committee provides the context for this letter, and then gives advice on: testing, evaluation, assessing costs and benefits, and deployment of advanced spectroscopic portals. The letter closes with a reiteration of the key points. The letter is abbreviated in that a small amount of information that may not be released publicly for security or law-enforcement reasons has been redacted from the version delivered to you in October 2010, but the findings and recommendations remain intact.
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25.58 USD

Evaluating Testing, Costs, and Benefits of Advanced Spectroscopic Portals: Final Report (Abbreviated Version)

by Committee on Advanced Spectroscopic Portals, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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People are constantly changing the land surface through construction, agriculture, energy production, and other activities. Changes both in how land is used by people (land use) and in the vegetation, rock, buildings, and other physical material that cover the Earth's surface (land cover) can be described and future land change ...
Advancing Land Change Modeling: Opportunities and Research Requirements
People are constantly changing the land surface through construction, agriculture, energy production, and other activities. Changes both in how land is used by people (land use) and in the vegetation, rock, buildings, and other physical material that cover the Earth's surface (land cover) can be described and future land change can be projected using land-change models (LCMs). LCMs are a key means for understanding how humans are reshaping the Earth's surface in the past and present, for forecasting future landscape conditions, and for developing policies to manage our use of resources and the environment at scales ranging from an individual parcel of land in a city to vast expanses of forests around the world. Advancing Land Change Modeling: Opportunities and Research Requirements describes various LCM approaches, suggests guidance for their appropriate application, and makes recommendations to improve the integration of observation strategies into the models. This report provides a summary and evaluation of several modeling approaches, and their theoretical and empirical underpinnings, relative to complex land-change dynamics and processes, and identifies several opportunities for further advancing the science, data, and cyberinfrastructure involved in the LCM enterprise. Because of the numerous models available, the report focuses on describing the categories of approaches used along with selected examples, rather than providing a review of specific models. Additionally, because all modeling approaches have relative strengths and weaknesses, the report compares these relative to different purposes. Advancing Land Change Modeling's recommendations for assessment of future data and research needs will enable model outputs to better assist the science, policy, and decisionsupport communities.
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49.49 USD

Advancing Land Change Modeling: Opportunities and Research Requirements

by Committee on Needs and Research Requirements for Land Change Modeling, Geographical Sciences Committee, Board on Earth Sciences & Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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