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Natural disasters--including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods--caused more than 220,000 deaths worldwide in the first half of 2010 and wreaked havoc on homes, buildings, and the environment. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential that citizens and communities work together to anticipate threats, limit ...
Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration
Natural disasters--including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods--caused more than 220,000 deaths worldwide in the first half of 2010 and wreaked havoc on homes, buildings, and the environment. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential that citizens and communities work together to anticipate threats, limit their effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. Increasing evidence indicates that collaboration between the private and public sectors could improve the ability of a community to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Several previous National Research Council reports have identified specific examples of the private and public sectors working cooperatively to reduce the effects of a disaster by implementing building codes, retrofitting buildings, improving community education, or issuing extreme-weather warnings. State and federal governments have acknowledged the importance of collaboration between private and public organizations to develop planning for disaster preparedness and response. Despite growing ad hoc experience across the country, there is currently no comprehensive framework to guide private-public collaboration focused on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. Building Community Disaster Resilience through Private-Public Collaboration assesses the current state of private-public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community resilience, identifies gaps in knowledge and practice, and recommends research that could be targeted for investment. Specifically, the book finds that local-level private-public collaboration is essential to the development of community resilience. Sustainable and effective resilience-focused private-public collaboration is dependent on several basic principles that increase communication among all sectors of the community, incorporate flexibility into collaborative networks, and encourage regular reassessment of collaborative missions, goals, and practices.
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42.66 USD

Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration

by Committee on Private-Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Disaster Resilience, Geographical Science Committee, Board on Earth Sciences & Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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The science of animal nutrition has made significant advances in the past century. In looking back at the discoveries of the 20th century, we can appreciate the tremendous impact that animal nutrition has had on our lives. From the discovery of vitamins and the sweeping shift in the use of ...
Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium
The science of animal nutrition has made significant advances in the past century. In looking back at the discoveries of the 20th century, we can appreciate the tremendous impact that animal nutrition has had on our lives. From the discovery of vitamins and the sweeping shift in the use of oilseeds to replace animal products as dietary protein sources for animals during the war times of the 1900s-to our integral understanding of nutrients as regulators of gene expression today-animal nutrition has been the cornerstone for scientific advances in many areas. At the milestone of their 70th year of service to the nation, the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) sought to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of recent discoveries and directions in animal nutrition for the new century we are embarking upon. With financial support from the NRC, the committee was able to organize and host a symposium that featured scientists from many backgrounds who were asked to share their ideas about the potential of animal nutrition to address current problems and future challenges.
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32.40 USD

Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium

by Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
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Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in ...
Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts
Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss? Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, Reducing Coastal Risk states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources. Reducing Coastal Risk recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.
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63.14 USD

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

by Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning, Water Science and Technology Board, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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Although the progress of environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades remains slow overall, there have been improvements in the pace of restoration and in the relationship between the federal and state partners during the last two years. However, the importance of several challenges related to water quantity and quality ...
Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review - 2010
Although the progress of environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades remains slow overall, there have been improvements in the pace of restoration and in the relationship between the federal and state partners during the last two years. However, the importance of several challenges related to water quantity and quality have become clear, highlighting the difficulty in achieving restoration goals for all ecosystem components in all portions of the Everglades. Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades explores these challenges. The book stresses that rigorous scientific analyses of the tradeoffs between water quality and quantity and between the hydrologic requirements of Everglades features and species are needed to inform future prioritization and funding decisions.
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75.08 USD

Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review - 2010

by Committee on Independent Scientific Review of Everglades Restoration Progress, Water Science and Technology Board, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Potential health risks during spaceflights include short-term health consequences from being in microgravity, as well as long-term health consequences that arise, or continue, months or years after a flight. Additional health considerations are risks ...
Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Potential health risks during spaceflights include short-term health consequences from being in microgravity, as well as long-term health consequences that arise, or continue, months or years after a flight. Additional health considerations are risks posed by exposure to environmental contaminants onboard spacecraft. Because the International Space Station and spacecraft are closed environments that require recirculation of air and water supplies, some contamination of the air and water will occur. Even with onboard air and water purification systems, chemicals will accumulate in the air and water as they recirculate or are recycled onboard. Therefore, it is necessary for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to identify hazardous contaminants and determine exposure levels that are not expected to pose a health risk to astronauts. NASA uses spacecraft maximum allowance concentrations (SMACs) and spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) to provide guidance on acceptable exposures to air and water contaminants during normal operations and emergency situations. Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines updates the methods for establishing SMACs and SWEGs and assists NASA with identifying chemicals that need updated SMACs or SWEGs and new chemicals for which these guidelines should be developed.
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30.450000 USD

Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines

by Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever ...
Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences
Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever more important in an economically and geopolitically connected world, and contributes vital information to policy and decision makers charged with addressing societal interests in the ocean. Science provides the knowledge necessary to realize the benefits and manage the risks of the ocean. Comprehensive understanding of the global ocean is fundamental to forecasting and managing risks from severe storms, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and managing ocean resources. In the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is the primary funder of the basic research which underlies advances in our understanding of the ocean. Sea Change addresses the strategic investments necessary at NSF to ensure a robust ocean scientific enterprise over the next decade. This survey provides guidance from the ocean sciences community on research and facilities priorities for the coming decade and makes recommendations for funding priorities.
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54.60 USD

Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences

by Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Committee On Guidance For NSF On National Ocean Science Research Priorities
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The Arctic has been undergoing significant changes in recent years. Average temperatures are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world. The extent and thickness of sea ice is rapidly declining. Such changes may have an impact on atmospheric conditions outside the region. Several hypotheses for how ...
Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop
The Arctic has been undergoing significant changes in recent years. Average temperatures are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world. The extent and thickness of sea ice is rapidly declining. Such changes may have an impact on atmospheric conditions outside the region. Several hypotheses for how Arctic warming may be influencing mid-latitude weather patterns have been proposed recently. For example, Arctic warming could lead to a weakened jet stream resulting in more persistent weather patterns in the mid-latitudes. Or Arctic sea ice loss could lead to an increase of snow on high-latitude land, which in turn impacts the jet stream resulting in cold Eurasian and North American winters. These and other potential connections between a warming Arctic and mid-latitude weather are the subject of active research. Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns is the summary of a workshop convened in September 2013 by the National Research Council to review our current understanding and to discuss research needed to better understand proposed linkages. A diverse array of experts examined linkages between a warming Arctic and mid-latitude weather patterns. The workshop included presentations from leading researchers representing a range of views on this topic. The workshop was organized to allow participants to take a global perspective and consider the influence of the Arctic in the context of forcing from other components of the climate system, such as changes in the tropics, ocean circulation, and mid-latitude sea surface temperature. This report discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms that link declines in Arctic sea ice cover, loss of high-latitude snow cover, changes in Arctic-region energy fluxes, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the occurrence of extreme weather events; possible implications of more severe loss of summer Arctic sea ice upon weather patterns at lower latitudes; major gaps in our understanding, and observational and/or modeling efforts that are needed to fill those gaps; and current opportunities and limitations for using Arctic sea ice predictions to assess the risk of temperature/precipitation anomalies and extreme weather events over northern continents.
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48.300000 USD

Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop

by Committee on Linkages Between Arctic Sea Ice Loss and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: a Workshop, Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate, Polar Research Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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As the importance of the oceans to society grows, so does the need to understand their variation on many temporal and spatial scales. This need to understand ocean change is compelling scientists to move beyond traditional expeditionary modes of investigation. Observing systems will enable the study of processes in the ...
Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories
As the importance of the oceans to society grows, so does the need to understand their variation on many temporal and spatial scales. This need to understand ocean change is compelling scientists to move beyond traditional expeditionary modes of investigation. Observing systems will enable the study of processes in the ocean basins over varying timescales and spatial scales, providing the scientific basis for addressing important societal concerns such as climate change, natural hazards, and the health and viability of living and non-living resources along our coasts and in the open ocean. The book evaluates the scientific and technical readiness to move ahead with the establishment of a research-driven ocean observatory network, and highlights outstanding issues. These issues include the status of planning and development, factors that affect the timing of construction and installation, the cost and requirements for maintenance and operations, needs for sensor development and data management, the impact on availability of ships and deep submergence facilities, and the role of research-based observatories within national and international operational ocean observing systems being developed and implemented.
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63.000000 USD

Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories

by Committee on the Implementation of a Seafloor Observatory Network for Oceanographic Research, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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Growing numbers of pet owners are giving their pets dietary supplements in hopes of supporting their health. Many people presume that supplements are safer than drugs, but the reality is that there are very limited safety data on dietary supplements for pets. Many challenges stand in the way of determining ...
Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats
Growing numbers of pet owners are giving their pets dietary supplements in hopes of supporting their health. Many people presume that supplements are safer than drugs, but the reality is that there are very limited safety data on dietary supplements for pets. Many challenges stand in the way of determining whether animal dietary supplements are safe and at what dosage. Supplements considered safe in humans and other species are not always safe in horses, dogs, and cats. An improved adverse event reporting system is badly needed. Also, the absence of laws and regulations that specifically address animal dietary supplements causes considerable confusion to the industry and to the public. Clear and precise regulations are needed to allow only safe dietary supplements on the market. This book examines issues in determining safety of animal dietary supplements in general, and the safety of three animal dietary supplements; lutein, evening primrose oil, and garlic, in particular.
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331.01 USD

Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats

by Committee on Examining the Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives and provides, it ...
Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment
The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives and provides, it generates knowledge that in turn affects society in myriad ways. The United States has experienced and continues to face the threat of disasters, and, like all entities, the academic biomedical research community can be affected. Recent disasters, from hurricanes to cyber-attacks, and their consequences have shown that the investments of the federal government and of the many other entities that sponsor academic research are not uniformly secure. First and foremost, events that damage biomedical laboratories and the institutions that house them can have impacts on the safety and well-being of humans and research animals. Furthermore, disasters can affect career trajectories, scientific progress, and financial stability at the individual and institutional levels. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community offers recommendations and guidance to enhance the disaster resilience of the academic biomedical research community, with a special focus on the potential actions researchers, academic research institutions, and research sponsors can take to mitigate the impact of future disasters.
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99.750000 USD

Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Health and Medicine Division, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of Academic Research Communities
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The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of ...
Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration
The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly? As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods. With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
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52.500000 USD

Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration

by National Research Council, Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts
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Updating recommendations last made by the National Research Council in the mid-1980s, this report provides nutrient recommendations based on physical activity and stage in life, major factors that influence nutrient needs. It looks at how nutrients are metabolized in the bodies of dogs and cats, indications of nutrient deficiency, and ...
Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats
Updating recommendations last made by the National Research Council in the mid-1980s, this report provides nutrient recommendations based on physical activity and stage in life, major factors that influence nutrient needs. It looks at how nutrients are metabolized in the bodies of dogs and cats, indications of nutrient deficiency, and diseases related to poor nutrition. The report provides a valuable resource for industry professionals formulating diets, scientists setting research agendas, government officials developing regulations for pet food labeling, and as a university textbook for dog and cat nutrition. It can also guide pet owners feeding decisions for their pets with information on specific nutrient needs, characteristics of different types of pet foods, and factors to consider when feeding cats and dogs.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats

by Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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What role does the ocean play in global climate change? Although not fully understood, there is general agreement that it is significant. Therefore, the scientific community has initiated large-scale research programs based on studies of the ocean and its relation to global climate and climate-related processes. This volume provides brief ...
The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs
What role does the ocean play in global climate change? Although not fully understood, there is general agreement that it is significant. Therefore, the scientific community has initiated large-scale research programs based on studies of the ocean and its relation to global climate and climate-related processes. This volume provides brief summaries and reports on the progress of the major oceanographic research programs. It looks at both programs that study processes that occur over periods ranging from days to hundreds of years--the contemporary system--and those that seek to understand long-term variations ranging from thousands to millions of years--the geological perspective.
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26.250000 USD

The Ocean's Role in Global Change: Progress of Major Research Programs

by Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
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Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the ...
Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.
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93.450000 USD

Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

by Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for beef cattle. The cattle industry has undergone ...
Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition
Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for beef cattle. The cattle industry has undergone considerable changes since the seventh revised edition was published in 2000 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate. The eighth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle builds on the previous editions. A great deal of new research has been published during the past 14 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of beef in all stages of life, this volume includes new information about phosphorus and sulfur contents; a review of nutritional and feeding strategies to minimize nutrient losses in manure and reduce greenhouse gas production; a discussion of the effect of feeding on the nutritional quality and food safety of beef; new information about nutrient metabolism and utilization; new information on feed additives that alter rumen metabolism and postabsorptive metabolism; and future areas of needed research. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on beef cattle nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious beef production.
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157.450000 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition

by Committee On Nutrient Requirements Of Beef Cattle, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Research Council
Hardback
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The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite ...
Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean
The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.
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73.37 USD

Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean

by Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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Updating two previous National Research Council publications, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition, 1985, and Nutrient Requirements of Goats, First Edition, 1981, this new book provides an evaluation of the scientific literature on the nutrient requirements of small ruminants in all stages of life. In addition, effects of the ...
Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids
Updating two previous National Research Council publications, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition, 1985, and Nutrient Requirements of Goats, First Edition, 1981, this new book provides an evaluation of the scientific literature on the nutrient requirements of small ruminants in all stages of life. In addition, effects of the environment, feed additives, and metabolism modifiers on nutrient requirements are addressed. Proper formulation of diets for small ruminants depends on adequate knowledge of their nutrient requirements. These requirements depend on the breed and age of the animal and whether he or she is exercising, pregnant, or lactating. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants brings together a summary of this latest data with new and expanded information on the composition of feeds commonly consumed by small ruminants, both domestic and wild. For the first time this authoritative reference work includes information on cervids and camelids. Primarily intended for animal nutritionists, veterinarians, and other scientists, some sections will be useful to individual sheep and goat owners and managers and to those responsible for the care and management of wildlife species. As both a practical and a technical reference book, this material is written to ensure that diets of small ruminants contain adequate amounts of nutrients and that intakes of certain nutrients are not so excessive that they inhibit performance or impair health.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids

by Committee on the Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
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Chronic and episodic water shortages are becoming common in many regions of the United States, and population growth in water-scarce regions further compounds the challenges. Increasingly, alternative water sources such as graywater-untreated wastewater that does not include water from the toilet but generally includes water from bathroom sinks, showers, bathtubs, ...
Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits
Chronic and episodic water shortages are becoming common in many regions of the United States, and population growth in water-scarce regions further compounds the challenges. Increasingly, alternative water sources such as graywater-untreated wastewater that does not include water from the toilet but generally includes water from bathroom sinks, showers, bathtubs, clothes washers, and laundry sinks- and stormwater-water from rainfall or snow that can be measured downstream in a pipe, culvert, or stream shortly after the precipitation event-are being viewed as resources to supplement scarce water supplies rather than as waste to be discharged as rapidly as possible. Graywater and stormwater can serve a range of non-potable uses, including irrigation, toilet flushing, washing, and cooling, although treatment may be needed. Stormwater may also be used to recharge groundwater, which may ultimately be tapped for potable use. In addition to providing additional sources of local water supply, harvesting stormwater has many potential benefits, including energy savings, pollution prevention, and reducing the impacts of urban development on urban streams. Similarly, the reuse of graywater can enhance water supply reliability and extend the capacity of existing wastewater systems in growing cities. Despite the benefits of using local alternative water sources to address water demands, many questions remain that have limited the broader application of graywater and stormwater capture and use. In particular, limited information is available on the costs, benefits, and risks of these projects, and beyond the simplest applications many state and local public health agencies have not developed regulatory frameworks for full use of these local water resources. To address these issues, Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies analyzes the risks, costs, and benefits on various uses of graywater and stormwater. This report examines technical, economic, regulatory, and social issues associated with graywater and stormwater capture for a range of uses, including non-potable urban uses, irrigation, and groundwater recharge. Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies considers the quality and suitability of water for reuse, treatment and storage technologies, and human health and environmental risks of water reuse. The findings and recommendations of this report will be valuable for water managers, citizens of states under a current drought, and local and state health and environmental agencies.
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67.200000 USD

Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits

by Committee on the Beneficial Use of Graywater and Stormwater: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits, Water Science and Technology Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, ...
Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond
Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and implementation challenges in areas such as infrastructure, student education and training, faculty advancement, and inter-institutional partnerships.
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51.19 USD

Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond

by Committee on Key Challenge Areas for Convergence and Health, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback
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The Update to the Strategic Plan (USP) is a supplement to the Ten-Year Strategic Plan of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) completed in 2012. The Strategic Plan sets out a research program guiding thirteen federal agencies in accord with the Global Change Research Act of 1990. This report ...
Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Update to the Strategic Plan Document
The Update to the Strategic Plan (USP) is a supplement to the Ten-Year Strategic Plan of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) completed in 2012. The Strategic Plan sets out a research program guiding thirteen federal agencies in accord with the Global Change Research Act of 1990. This report reviews whether USGCRPa (TM)s efforts to achieve its goals and objectives, as documented in the USP, are adequate and responsive to the Nationa (TM)s needs, whether the priorities for continued or increased emphasis are appropriate, and if the written document communicates effectively, all within a context of the history and trajectory of the Program.
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44.100000 USD

Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Update to the Strategic Plan Document

by Committee to Advise the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Change and Society, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback
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Deep-diving manned submersibles, such as Alvin, which gained worldwide fame when researchers used it to reach the wreck of the Titanic, have helped advance deep-ocean science. But many scholars in this field have noted that the number and capabilities of today's underwater vehicles no longer meet current scientific demands. At ...
Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research
Deep-diving manned submersibles, such as Alvin, which gained worldwide fame when researchers used it to reach the wreck of the Titanic, have helped advance deep-ocean science. But many scholars in this field have noted that the number and capabilities of today's underwater vehicles no longer meet current scientific demands. At the same time, the relative value of manned and unmanned vehicles is often disputed. The report finds that new submersibles -- both manned and unmanned -- that are more capable than those in the current fleet are needed and would be of great value to the advancement of ocean research.
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35.82 USD

Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research

by Committee on Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Paperback
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We live in a changing world with multiple and evolving threats to national security, including terrorism, asymmetrical warfare (conflicts between agents with different military powers or tactics), and social unrest. Visually depicting and assessing these threats using imagery and other geographically-referenced information is the mission of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ...
Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence
We live in a changing world with multiple and evolving threats to national security, including terrorism, asymmetrical warfare (conflicts between agents with different military powers or tactics), and social unrest. Visually depicting and assessing these threats using imagery and other geographically-referenced information is the mission of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). As the nature of the threat evolves, so do the tools, knowledge, and skills needed to respond. The challenge for NGA is to maintain a workforce that can deal with evolving threats to national security, ongoing scientific and technological advances, and changing skills and expectations of workers. Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence assesses the supply of expertise in 10 geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) fields, including 5 traditional areas (geodesy and geophysics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, cartographic science, and geographic information systems and geospatial analysis) and 5 emerging areas that could improve geospatial intelligence (GEOINT fusion, crowdsourcing, human geography, visual analytics, and forecasting). The report also identifies gaps in expertise relative to NGA's needs and suggests ways to ensure an adequate supply of geospatial intelligence expertise over the next 20 years.
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63.14 USD

Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence

by Committee on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence, Board on Earth Sciences & Resources, Board on Higher Education and Workforce, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Policy and Global Affairs, National Research Council
Paperback
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On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the Oceanography in 2025 workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in ...
Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop
On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the Oceanography in 2025 workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in oceanography, with an emphasis on physical processes. The focus centered on research and technology needs, trends, and barriers that may impact the field of oceanography over the next 16 years, and highlighted specific areas of interest: submesoscale processes, air-sea interactions, basic and applied research, instrumentation and vehicles, ocean infrastructure, and education. To guide the white papers and drive discussions, four questions were posed to participants: What research questions could be answered? What will remain unanswered? What new technologies could be developed? How will research be conducted?
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63.000000 USD

Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Deborah Glickson, Committee on Oceanography in 2025: A Workshop, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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The coastlines of the United States are beautiful places to live, work and play. But, they are also very fragile areas whose ecosystems are vulnerable to mismanagement. There are many complex issues facing the ocean science community at the federal, state and local levels - this report reflects the conclusions ...
Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey
The coastlines of the United States are beautiful places to live, work and play. But, they are also very fragile areas whose ecosystems are vulnerable to mismanagement. There are many complex issues facing the ocean science community at the federal, state and local levels - this report reflects the conclusions and recommendations of the National Academies drawing on discussions with USGS as well as input from potential users, clients and collaborators of the Coastal and Marine Geology Program.
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49.49 USD

Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey

by Committee to Review the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences
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Since 1944, the National Research Council has published 10 editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since ...
Nutrient Requirements of Swine
Since 1944, the National Research Council has published 10 editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since the tenth edition was published in 1998 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate. The eleventh revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine builds on the previous editions published by the National Research Council. A great deal of new research has been published during the last 15 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of swine in all stages of life, this volume includes information about feed ingredients from the biofuels industry and other new ingredients, requirements for digestible phosphorus and concentrations of it in feed ingredients, a review of the effects of feed additives and feed processing, and strategies to increase nutrient retention and thus reduce fecal and urinary excretions that could contribute to environmental pollution. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated. Nutrient Requirements of Swine represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on swine nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious swine production.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Swine

by Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including ...
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use: *Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals. *Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. *Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more. *Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia. *Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
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37.53 USD

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

by Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
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Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to ...
Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values
Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.
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82.950000 USD

Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

by Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions ...
Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs. Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.
63.000000 USD

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors
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Aquaculture now supplies half of the seafood and fisheries products consumed worldwide and is gaining international significance as a source of food and income. Future demands for seafood and fisheries products can only be met by expanded aquaculture production. Such production will likely become more intensive and will depend increasingly ...
Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp
Aquaculture now supplies half of the seafood and fisheries products consumed worldwide and is gaining international significance as a source of food and income. Future demands for seafood and fisheries products can only be met by expanded aquaculture production. Such production will likely become more intensive and will depend increasingly on nutritious and efficient aquaculture feeds containing ingredients from sustainable sources. To meet this challenge, Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp and supporting nutritional science. This edition incorporates new material and significant updates to information in the 1993 edition. It also examines the practical aspects of feeding of fish and shrimp. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp will be a key resource for everyone involved in aquaculture and for others responsible for the feeding and care of fish and shrimp. It will also aid scientists in developing new and improved approaches to satisfy the demands of the growing aquaculture industry.
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179.16 USD

Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp

by Committee on the Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Hardback
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